Testosterone replacement therapy may improve glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in diabetic hypogonadal men. The mechanisms by which testosterone decreases insulin resistance is under study. Moreover, testosterone may have a protective effect on pancreatic beta cells, which is possibly exerted by androgen-receptor-mediated mechanisms and influence of inflammatory cytokines.
Diabetes is a chronic, long-term disease marked by high levels of sugar in the blood. It can be caused by too little or no insulin (a hormone produced by the pancreas to regulate blood sugar), resistance to insulin (when cells in the body cannot effectively use insulin), or both. Diabetes can lead to serious health complications including heart disease, blindness, kidney failure, and lower-extremity amputations, such as a foot or lower leg.
Magnesium-rich foods: Magnesium can help regulate blood sugar levels because it plays a role in glucose metabolism. Research shows that diabetes is frequently associated with magnesium deficiency. Eating magnesium-rich foods, like spinach, chard, pumpkin seeds, almonds, yogurt and black beans, can improve type 2 diabetes symptoms. (11)
The body does not produce insulin. Some people may refer to this type as insulin-dependent diabetes, juvenile diabetes, or early-onset diabetes. People usually develop type 1 diabetes before their 40th year, often in early adulthood or teenage years.
Amazingly, one in four Americans has some form of diabetes or pre-diabetes. If this is not a clear sign that conventional health recommendations are flawed, I don’t know what is. I too have personal experience with this disease. I developed it myself for a short while, when I tried to implement an Eat Right for Your Type program in the late 90s.
Exenatide is indicated as additional therapy to improve control of blood sugar in type 2 diabetes patients who have not achieved adequate sugar control with metformin, sulfonylurea, or a combination of metformin and sulfonylurea. Exenatide enhances insulin release from the pancreas. Insulin secretion usually increases only when blood sugars are high, then decreases as blood sugar level approaches normal. In addition to enhancing the normal physiology of the pancreatic beta-cell, exenatide suppresses glucose release from the liver, slows stomach emptying, slows absorption of nutrients including carbohydrate, and reduces food intake.
According to published data, pramlintide reduces post-meal blood sugar peaks, reduces glucose fluctuations throughout the day, enhances satiety (the sensation of fullness) leading to potential weight loss, and lowers mealtime insulin requirements. Pramlintide can improve HbA1c beyond the effect of insulin alone.
The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) studied the effects of tight blood sugar control on complications in type 1 diabetes. Patients treated for tight blood glucose control had an average HbA1c of approximately 7%, while patients treated less aggressively had an average HbA1c about 9%. At the end of the study, the tight blood glucose group had dramatically fewer cases of kidney disease, eye disease, and nervous system disease than the less-aggressively treated patients.
Alcohol: Alcohol can dangerously increase blood sugar and lead to liver toxicity. Research published in Annals of Internal Medicine found that there was a 43 percent increased incidence of diabetes associated with heavy consumption of alcohol, which is defined as three or more drinks per day. (8) Beer and sweet liquors are especially high in carbohydrates and should be avoided.
Most people with diabetes find that it is quite helpful to sit down with a dietitian or nutritionist for a consult about what is the best diet for them and how many daily calories they need. It is quite important for diabetics to understand the principles of carbohydrate counting and how to help control blood sugar levels through proper diet. Below are some general principles about the diabetic diet.
Insulin is a hormone that is produced by the pancreas. After eating, the pancreas automatically releases an adequate quantity of insulin to move the glucose present in our blood into the cells, as soon as glucose enters the cells blood-glucose levels drop.
Diabetes has a powerful effect on your heart. Women with diabetes are twice as likely to have another heart attack after the first one. They’re at quadruple the risk of heart failure when compared to women without diabetes. Diabetes can also lead to complications during pregnancy.
eggegg/shutterstockDon’t be alarmed: This is not diabetic retinopathy, where the blood vessels in the back of the eye are getting destroyed, says Dr. Cypess. In the early stages of diabetes, the eye lens is not focusing well because glucose builds up in the eye, which temporarily changes its shape. “You’re not going blind from diabetes,” Dr. Cypess says he assures patients. “In about six to eight weeks after your blood sugars are stabilized, you’re not going to feel it anymore; the eye will adjust.” Here are more surprising facts you never knew about diabetes.
There are now three large randomized controlled trials reporting statistically significant reductions in cardiovascular events for two SGLT2 inhibitors (empagliflozin and canagliflozin) and one GLP-1 receptor agonist (liraglutide) where the majority, if not all patients, in the trial had ASCVD. The empagliflozin and liraglutide trials demonstrated significant reductions in cardiovascular death. Exenatide once-weekly did not have statistically significant reductions in major adverse cardiovascular events or cardiovascular mortality but did have a significant reduction in all-cause mortality. In contrast, other GLP-1 receptor agonists have not shown similar reductions in cardiovascular events (Table 9.4). Whether the benefits of GLP-1 receptor agonists are a class effect remains to be definitively established. See antihyperglycemic therapies and cardiovascular outcomes in Section 9 “Cardiovascular Disease and Risk Management” and Table 9.4 for a detailed description of these cardiovascular outcomes trials. Additional large randomized trials of other agents in these classes are ongoing.
What has not generally been included in diabetic diet recommendations is the variation in effect from different carbohydrates. It has been recommended that carbohydrates eaten by people with diabetes should be complex carbohydrates.
Diabetes focus: Nutrisystem has counselors, registered dietitians, and certified diabetes educators available to assist you by phone. “Thanks to Nutrisystem’s low-glycemic foods, participants typically find their blood glucose starts to stabilize early on in the program,” says Anthony Fabricatore, Ph.D., vice president of research and development at Nutrisystem. “Minimizing peaks and valleys in blood glucose is a big help in reducing cardiovascular disease risk.” Consult your health care provider about diabetes medication adjustments before you start. Once you meet your weight goal, complete the company’s transition and weight-maintenance program.
High sugar foods are more concentrated in carb. Therefore the volume would be smaller than a low sugar food. High sugar foods might not be a good choice if they will just tempt you to eat more. If you would rather eat larger portions, select low sugar choices.
The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends eating fish twice a week. Unlike many meats, seafood is low in unhealthy saturated fat and cholesterol, plus it’s a good source of omega-3 fatty acids — particularly fatty fish such as salmon, mackerel, herring, lake trout, sardines, halibut, and albacore tuna. According to the American Heart Association, omega-3 fatty acids lower the risk of arrhythmias (abnormal heartbeats), which can lead to sudden death. Omega-3s also decrease triglyceride levels, slow the growth rate of atherosclerotic plaque, lower blood pressure, and curb inflammation. Further, ongoing studies are evaluating their effectiveness for decreasing the risk for Alzheimer’s disease and dementia.
High blood sugar levels can make teens with type 2 diabetes feel sick, so their treatment plan involves keeping their blood sugar levels within a healthy range while making sure they grow and develop normally. To do that, they need to:
That’s not all. For years oatmeal has had an uber-healthy reputation, and for good reason. According to the American Heart Association (AHA), oats have the highest proportion of soluble fiber than any other grain, which can help lower LDL (bad) cholesterol and decrease the risk of heart disease. In addition, oatmeal was the first food the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for carrying a specific health claim.
Another diabetes-related sexual dysfunction symptom in men is reduced amounts of ejaculation, or retrograde ejaculation. Retrograde ejaculation is a condition in which the semen goes into the bladder, rather than out of the body through the urethra. Diabetes and damage to the blood vessels causes nerve damage to the muscles that control the bladder and urethra, which results in this problem.
Nausea or vomiting but can keep liquids down.: The health-care professional may adjust medications while the patient is sick. The health-care professional will probably recommend an urgent office visit or a visit to the emergency department. Persistent nausea and vomiting can be a sign of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), a potentially life-threatening condition, as well as several other serious illnesses.
But the process that has destroyed 90 percent of the insulin-producing cells will ultimately destroy the remaining insulin-producing cells. And as that destruction continues, the amount of injected insulin the patient needs will increase — and ultimately the patient will be totally dependent on insulin injections.
Alcohol use: Moderate or eliminate consumption of alcohol. Try to have no more than seven alcoholic drinks in a week, and never more than two drinks in an evening. One drink is considered 1.5 ounces of liquor, 6 ounces of wine, or 12 ounces of beer. Excessive alcohol use is a known risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Alcohol consumption can cause low or high blood sugar levels, nerve pain (neuritis), and an increase in triglycerides.
The soluble fiber in oatmeal might also help blunt the rise in blood glucose by delaying stomach emptying and providing a physical barrier to digestive enzymes and absorptive surfaces, according to the professional publication Today’s Dietitian.
Once transplanted successfully, the donor cells begin to make and release insulin in response to blood sugar levels. This procedure can provide more flexibility with meal planning and help protect against serious long-term diabetes complications such as heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, and nerve and eye damage.
Vitamin E may help limit damage to the blood vessels and help protect against kidney and eye disease. But too much can lead to serious problems, such as a higher risk of stroke. Talk to your doctor before adding this supplement.