The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) studied the effects of tight blood sugar control on complications in type 1 diabetes. Patients treated for tight blood glucose control had an average HbA1c of approximately 7%, while patients treated less aggressively had an average HbA1c of about 9%. At the end of the study, the tight blood glucose group had dramatically fewer cases of kidney disease, eye disease, and nervous system disease than the less-aggressively treated patients.
Reaching and keeping a healthy weight are very important for managing diabetes. You should also follow your recommended diabetes diet, exercise regularly, manage your stress, and see your doctor regularly for necessary checkups.
Although similar to troglitazone, extensive studies have failed to associate pioglitazone and rosiglitazone with any liver problems. Both pioglitazone and rosiglitazone act by increasing the sensitivity (responsiveness) of cells to insulin. They improve the sensitivity of muscle and fat cells to insulin. These drugs effectively lower blood sugars in patients with type 2 diabetes.
I do recommend this book solely out of the idea that it can help. But a strong word of caution. It has been my experience that what works for some, may not work for all. All the information herein is sound, medically. But it is ultimately the individual who is important and their own physical make-up. No how to can work for all. That is a given, but it can work for the vast majority.
Because blood sugar levels fluctuate throughout the day and glucose records are imperfect indicators of these changes, the percentage of hemoglobin which is glycosylated is used as a proxy measure of long-term glycemic control in research trials and clinical care of people with diabetes. This test, the hemoglobin A1c or glycosylated hemoglobin reflects average glucoses over the preceding 2–3 months. In nondiabetic persons with normal glucose metabolism the glycosylated hemoglobin is usually 4–6% by the most common methods (normal ranges may vary by method).
“So, if this man’s meal plan developed with a dietitian states that he can eat 60 grams of carbohydrate at a meal, he can decide how he ‘spends’ those 60 grams. One time he may have 2/3 cup of rice and one cup of peas. Another time he may decide, for his carb choices, to eat a small baked potato, a cup of milk and have the brownie for dessert.”
“This is a darkening of the skin around the neck or armpit area,” Dr. Collazo-Clavell says. “People who have this already have an insulin resistance process occurring even though their blood sugar might not be high. When I see this, I want to check their blood sugar.”
Men whose testosterone levels are low have been found to have a higher of developing type 2 diabetes. Researchers from the University of Edinburgh, Scotland, say that low testosterone levels are linked to insulin resistance. (Link to article)
Diabetic hyperlipidemia sounds a bit intimidating, doesn’t it? As we always do here on EndocrineWeb, we’re going to break down that concept for you, and that’s why we’ve put together this Patient Guide to Treating High Cholesterol and Diabetes.
Symptoms of type 1 diabetes often appear suddenly and are often the reason for checking blood sugar levels. Because symptoms of other types of diabetes and prediabetes come on more gradually or may not be evident, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) has recommended screening guidelines. The ADA recommends that the following people be screened for diabetes:
The goal of diabetes treatment is to keep blood glucose levels as close to normal as possible. Treatment for type 1 diabetes includes eating a healthy diet, exercising, and taking insulin. Treatment for type 2 includes living a healthy lifestyle and monitoring blood glucose levels. Self management is a key component for managing this condition, and includes meal planning, planned physical activity, and blood glucose monitoring.
Not only are 86 million Americans prediabetic, but 90% of them don’t even know they have it, the Centers for Disease Control reports. What’s more, doctors diagnose as many as 1.5 million new cases of diabetes each year, according to the American Diabetes Association.
Type 1 diabetes is partly inherited, with multiple genes, including certain HLA genotypes, known to influence the risk of diabetes. In genetically susceptible people, the onset of diabetes can be triggered by one or more environmental factors, such as a viral infection or diet. Several viruses have been implicated, but to date there is no stringent evidence to support this hypothesis in humans. Among dietary factors, data suggest that gliadin (a protein present in gluten) may play a role in the development of type 1 diabetes, but the mechanism is not fully understood.
Eating right and exercising more often is good for everyone. But it’s especially important for people with type 2 diabetes because they often have more body fat than they should. When people put on too much body fat, it’s because they’re eating more calories than they use each day. The body stores that extra energy in fat cells. Over time, gaining pounds of extra fat can lead to obesity and diseases related to obesity, like type 2 diabetes.
Whether fresh, canned, frozen, or packaged with no sugar added, fruits should be part of a healthful eating plan. Fruits are natural sources of energy, vitamins, minerals, and fiber. Be mindful that juice does not have the fiber content of whole fruits.
Fiber-rich foods. Dietary fiber includes all parts of plant foods that your body can’t digest or absorb. Fiber moderates how your body digests and helps control blood sugar levels. Foods high in fiber include vegetables, fruits, nuts, legumes (beans, peas and lentils), whole-wheat flour and wheat bran.
Eating more whole fruits, particularly grapes, blueberries, and apples, was significantly associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes, according to a Harvard study published in the British Medical Journal in 2013. People who ate at least two servings each week of certain whole fruits reduced their risk for type 2 diabetes by as much as 23 percent when compared to those who ate less than one serving per month. Eating the whole fruit seems to be key, though; researchers found that fruit juice drinkers faced as much as a 21 percent increased risk of developing diabetes. Make sure to avoid these foods that are bad for diabetics.
Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes during pregnancy increase the risk of complications. Pregnant women should work closely with their healthcare team to discuss meals, a safe exercise plan, and how often to test blood sugar. Importantly, women should find out if their medications need to change during pregnancy.
The risk of a urinary tract infection (UTI) is higher in women who have diabetes. UTIs develop when bacteria enters the urinary tract. These infections can cause painful urination, a burning sensation, and bloody or cloudy urine. If left untreated, there’s the risk of a kidney infection.
Late in the 19th century, sugar in the urine (glycosuria) was associated with diabetes. Various doctors studied the connection. Frederick Madison Allen studied diabetes in 1909–12, then published a large volume, Studies Concerning Glycosuria and Diabetes, (Boston, 1913). He invented a fasting treatment for diabetes called the Allen treatment for diabetes. His diet was an early attempt at managing diabetes.
What you eat: The Simple Start program includes two weeks of easy meal ideas and recipes with photos, plus a shopping list of satisfying, everyday foods that don’t trigger overeating. Once you’ve made it through the first two weeks, you can opt to transition to the PointsPlus program. Foods emphasized include nonstarchy vegetables, lean protein, whole grains, and flavor enhancers such as plain fat-free Greek yogurt, dried seasonings, fresh herbs, or reduced-sodium soy sauce.