“diabetes mellitus background”

Has your teacher ever assigned you a huge paper or project due at the end of the semester or term? If so, you probably know the value of a plan. Making a plan that tells you when you’ll research and write your material or conduct your experiments is important so you don’t spend the last week before the deadline worrying about how you’ll get it all done.

^ Jump up to: a b Kitabchi AE, Umpierrez GE, Miles JM, Fisher JN (July 2009). “Hyperglycemic crises in adult patients with diabetes”. Diabetes Care. 32 (7): 1335–43. doi:10.2337/dc09-9032. PMC 2699725 . PMID 19564476. Archived from the original on 2016-06-25.

Choose healthy foods and maintain a healthy weight. Losing just 7 percent of your body weight if you’re overweight can make a significant difference in your blood sugar control. A healthy diet is one with plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains and legumes, with a limited amount of saturated fat.

You may eat normally and constantly feel hungry, yet continue to lose weight. This can be seen with type 1 diabetes. If your body isn’t getting enough energy from the foods that you eat, it will break down other energy sources available within the body. This includes your fat and protein stores. When this happens, it can cause you to lose weight.

Now many patients are being taught to focus on how many total grams of carbohydrate they can eat throughout the day at each meal and snack, and still keep their blood glucose under good control. Well-controlled blood glucose is a top priority because other research studies have concluded that all people with diabetes can cut their risk of developing diabetes complications such as heart disease, stroke, kidney and eye disease, nerve damage, and more, by keeping their blood glucose as closely controlled as possible.

Of interest, studies have shown that there is about a 35% decrease in relative risk for microvascular disease for every 1% reduction in A1c. The closer to normal the A1c, the lower the absolute risk for microvascular complications.

The word mellitus (/məˈlaɪtəs/ or /ˈmɛlɪtəs/) comes from the classical Latin word mellītus, meaning “mellite”[105] (i.e. sweetened with honey;[105] honey-sweet[106]). The Latin word comes from mell-, which comes from mel, meaning “honey”;[105][106] sweetness;[106] pleasant thing,[106] and the suffix -ītus,[105] whose meaning is the same as that of the English suffix “-ite”.[107] It was Thomas Willis who in 1675 added “mellitus” to the word “diabetes” as a designation for the disease, when he noticed the urine of a diabetic had a sweet taste (glycosuria). This sweet taste had been noticed in urine by the ancient Greeks, Chinese, Egyptians, Indians, and Persians.

Healthy fats are unsaturated. Unsaturated fats don’t increase your risk of heart disease. Monounsaturated fats, found in olive oil and avocados, and omega-3 fats, found in salmon and walnuts, are especially good for heart health. For everyday cooking, use canola and olive oils.

It is well known that insulin can normalize blood sugar levels. So, if you are diabetic, you can try to avoid the daily tingling. We suggest you try a natural treatment before using insulin. But, if you are already using insulin, you can try to reduce the amount and stimulate the functioning of the pancreas.

It’s estimated by the American Diabetes Association that 30.3 million Americans have one of three forms of diabetes (type 1, type 2 or gestational). This equals about 9.4 percent of the population or about one in every 11 people. (10a)

Type 2 diabetes is ‘reversible through weight loss’ Experts say that few doctors and patients know that type 2 diabetes can be reversed and call for more effort to record remission cases and raise awareness. Read now

Diabetes can occur at any time. There are certain risk factors for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. This is not an exhaustive list, and even adults can end up with type 1 diabetes, though it is infrequent.

Fiber from vegetables, seeds, nuts and legumes plays a big part in keeping you full (without loads of calories), supports detoxification and helps balance blood glucose by slowing the rush of sugar into your blood stream.  Additionally, these foods provide the carbohydrates your body needs without the empty calories of processed grains and sugars.

After a dog eats, his digestive system breaks food into various components, including glucose-which is carried into his cells by insulin, a hormone secreted by the pancreas. When a dog does not produce insulin or cannot utilize it normally, his blood sugar levels elevate. The result is hyperglycemia, which, if left untreated, can cause many complicated health problems for a dog.

Gene therapy can be used to manufacture insulin directly: an oral medication, consisting of viral vectors containing the insulin sequence, is digested and delivers its genes to the upper intestines. Those intestinal cells will then behave like any viral infected cell, and will reproduce the insulin protein. The virus can be controlled to infect only the cells which respond to the presence of glucose, such that insulin is produced only in the presence of high glucose levels. Due to the limited numbers of vectors delivered, very few intestinal cells would actually be impacted and would die off naturally in a few days. Therefore, by varying the amount of oral medication used, the amount of insulin created by gene therapy can be increased or decreased as needed. As the insulin-producing intestinal cells die off, they are boosted by additional oral medications.[88]

That’s not all. For years oatmeal has had an uber-healthy reputation, and for good reason. According to the American Heart Association (AHA), oats have the highest proportion of soluble fiber than any other grain, which can help lower LDL (bad) cholesterol and decrease the risk of heart disease. In addition, oatmeal was the first food the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for carrying a specific health claim.

Diabetic persons are advised to make morning appointments to the dental care provider as during this time of the day the blood sugar levels tend to be better kept under control. Not least, individuals who suffer from diabetes must make sure both their physician and dental care provider are informed and aware of their condition, medical history and periodontal status.

For people with either type of diabetes, exercise can lower the chance of having a heart attack or stroke and can improve circulation. It may offer stress relief, as well. People with type 2 diabetes who need to lose weight can benefit from moderate exercise. Most people with diabetes are encouraged to get at least 150 minutes each week of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity, like walking. Strength training is often recommended at least twice a week. Talk to your doctor about what type of exercise is right for you.

The primary complications of diabetes due to damage in small blood vessels include damage to the eyes, kidneys, and nerves.[29] Damage to the eyes, known as diabetic retinopathy, is caused by damage to the blood vessels in the retina of the eye, and can result in gradual vision loss and blindness.[29] Damage to the kidneys, known as diabetic nephropathy, can lead to tissue scarring, urine protein loss, and eventually chronic kidney disease, sometimes requiring dialysis or kidney transplantation.[29] Damage to the nerves of the body, known as diabetic neuropathy, is the most common complication of diabetes.[29] The symptoms can include numbness, tingling, pain, and altered pain sensation, which can lead to damage to the skin. Diabetes-related foot problems (such as diabetic foot ulcers) may occur, and can be difficult to treat, occasionally requiring amputation. Additionally, proximal diabetic neuropathy causes painful muscle atrophy and weakness.

Generally, ankle swelling (edema) and puffiness due to the accumulation of fluid can be by either reducing the drug dose or addition of a diuretic such as spironolactone (Aldactone); note that furosemide (Lasix) does not work as well. On occasion, patients may be symptomatic enough from fluid retention to warrant drug withdrawal. Some recent studies have suggested an association between untoward cardiac events and pioglitazone and rosiglitazone (for example, heart attacks), but this association is controversial. The controversy notwithstanding, it has been well established that pioglitazone and rosiglitazone should be avoided in patients with symptomatic heart failure or heart failure.

Antihyperglycemic therapy in type 2 diabetes: general recommendations. *If patient does not tolerate or has contraindications to metformin, consider agents from another class in Table 8.1. #GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors should not be prescribed in combination. If a patient with ASCVD is not yet on an agent with evidence of cardiovascular risk reduction, consider adding.

It is important to see a doctor if there is any suspicion of diabetes or if any of the below signs and symptoms are present – prompt diagnosis and management lowers the likelihood of serious complications.5

Knowing your blood-sugar levels and acting accordingly are among the most important ways to treat T1D. Monitoring lets a person know when insulin may be needed to correct high blood sugar or when carbohydrates may be needed to correct low blood sugar. Monitoring blood sugar can be done using traditional blood-sugar meters or continuous glucose monitors (CGMs).

As self-management of diabetes typically involves lifestyle modifications, adherence may pose a significant self-management burden on many individuals.[78] For example, individuals with diabetes may find themselves faced with the need to self-monitor their blood glucose levels, adhere to healthier diets and maintain exercise regimens regularly in order to maintain metabolic control and reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular problems. Barriers to adherence have been associated with key psychological mechanisms: knowledge of self-management, beliefs about the efficacy of treatment and self-efficacy/perceived control.[78] Such mechanisms are inter-related, as one’s thoughts (e.g. one’s perception of diabetes, or one’s appraisal of how helpful self-management is) is likely to relate to one’s emotions (e.g. motivation to change), which in turn, affects one’s self-efficacy (one’s confidence in their ability to engage in a behaviour to achieve a desired outcome).[79]

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder that occurs when your blood sugar (glucose), is too high (hyperglycemia). Glucose is what the body uses for energy, and the pancreas produces a hormone called insulin that helps convert the glucose from the food you eat into energy. When the body either does not produce enough insulin, does not produce any at all, or your body becomes resistant to the insulin, the glucose does not reach your cells to be used for energy. This results in the health condition termed diabetes.

The pain of diabetic nerve damage may respond to traditional treatments with certain medications such as gabapentin (Neurontin), phenytoin (Dilantin), and carbamazepine (Tegretol) that are traditionally used in the treatment of seizure disorders. Amitriptyline (Elavil, Endep) and desipramine (Norpraminine) are medications that are traditionally used for depression. While many of these medications are not indicated specifically for the treatment of diabetes related nerve pain, they are used by physicians commonly.

Researchers from the Mayo Clinic Arizona in Scottsdale showed that gastric bypass surgery can reverse type 2 diabetes in a high proportion of patients. They added that within three to five years the disease recurs in approximately 21% of them. Yessica Ramos, MD., said “The recurrence rate was mainly influenced by a longstanding history of Type 2 diabetes before the surgery. This suggests that early surgical intervention in the obese, diabetic population will improve the durability of remission of Type 2 diabetes.” (Link to article)

People with type 1 diabetes (T1D) can live long, happy lives with proper care and disease management. Advancements in medication types and delivery methods give people the freedom to choose which treatment options work best with their particular circumstance. T1D prognoses can be greatly improved with a combination of treatments and lifestyle choices.

The feet should be washed and examined daily, including the soles, looking for small cuts, sores, or blisters that may cause problems later. The toenails should be filed rather than cut to avoid damaging the surrounding skin. A specialist in foot care (podiatrist) may be necessary to help care for the feet.

You are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you are not physically active and are overweight or obese. Extra weight sometimes causes insulin resistance and is common in people with type 2 diabetes. The location of body fat also makes a difference. Extra belly fat is linked to insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and heart and blood vessel disease. To see if your weight puts you at risk for type 2 diabetes, check out these Body Mass Index (BMI) charts.

After weight loss surgery, many people with type 2 diabetes see their blood sugar levels return to near normal. Some experts call this a remission. It’s not unusual for people to no longer need diabetes medicines after weight loss surgery.

Is it safe to use metformin during pregnancy? Metformin is commonly prescribed for managing type 2 diabetes. Although it effectively lowers blood sugar, is it safe for women to take during pregnancy? Read now

What you eat: The Simple Start program includes two weeks of easy meal ideas and recipes with photos, plus a shopping list of satisfying, everyday foods that don’t trigger overeating. Once you’ve made it through the first two weeks, you can opt to transition to the PointsPlus program. Foods emphasized include nonstarchy vegetables, lean protein, whole grains, and flavor enhancers such as plain fat-free Greek yogurt, dried seasonings, fresh herbs, or reduced-sodium soy sauce.

What you eat: To keep calories and blood sugar in check, you consume a meal replacement drink, such as Boost Glucose Control, at breakfast and lunch for the first six weeks. For dinner (as well as breakfast and lunch after the first six weeks) you choose from 14 structured menus with recipes. Snack options are provided, too. Fish, poultry, and lean meat servings average 6-8 ounces at dinner rather than the typical 3 ounces that are normally recommended. Colorful vegetables and high-fiber whole grains are also promoted.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *