“diabetes mellitus in zimbabwe”

While it is said that type 2 diabetes occurs mostly in individuals over 30 years old and the incidence increases with age, an alarming number of patients with type 2 diabetes are barely in their teen years. Most of these cases are a direct result of poor eating habits, higher body weight, and lack of exercise.

Follow this mix and match diabetic diet meal plan—adapted from The Outsmart Diabetes Diet—for the next five weeks to help fight fat, maintain healthy blood sugar levels, boost energy, and reduce your diabetes risk.

The best foods for diabetes are most often whole foods that are not processed, such as fruits and vegetables. Including these extra-healthy power foods in your diet will help you meet your nutritional needs as well as lower your risk of diabetes complications such as heart disease. Of course, the foods on this list shouldn’t be the only foods you eat, but incorporating some or all into your diabetes meal plan will help improve your overall health.

Yet understanding what and how much to eat can be a challenge. A registered dietitian can help you create a meal plan that fits your health goals, food preferences and lifestyle. This will likely include carbohydrate counting, especially if you have type 1 diabetes.

More obese individuals may need more calories initially until their weight is less. This is because it takes more calories to maintain a larger body, and a 1,600 calorie diet for them may promote weight loss that is too fast to be healthy.

While there is a strong genetic component to developing this form of diabetes, there are other risk factors – the most significant of which is obesity. There is a direct relationship between the degree of obesity and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, and this holds true in children as well as adults. It is estimated that the chance to develop diabetes doubles for every 20% increase over desirable body weight.

Excellent glycemic control, tight blood pressure control, and keeping the “bad” cholesterol (LDL) level at the recommended level below 100 mg/dL (or lower, particularly if other risk factors for cardiovascular disease are present) and the “good” (HDL) cholesterol as high as possible. When indicated, use of aspirin can prevent, slow the progression of, and improve established complications in diabetes.

The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) studied the effects of tight blood sugar control on complications in type 1 diabetes. Patients treated for tight blood glucose control had an average HbA1c of approximately 7%, while patients treated less aggressively had an average HbA1c of about 9%. At the end of the study, the tight blood glucose group had dramatically fewer cases of kidney disease, eye disease, and nervous system disease than the less-aggressively treated patients.

Sometimes medications — such as metformin (Glucophage, Glumetza, others) — also are an option if you’re at high risk of diabetes, including when your prediabetes is worsening or if you have cardiovascular disease, fatty liver disease or polycystic ovary syndrome.

This sweet seasoning contains a compound called hydroxychalcone, which may stimulate insulin receptors on cells and, in turn, improve your body’s ability to absorb blood sugar. Researchers from the University of California-Davis recently reviewed eight different studies on cinnamon and reported that about half to one teaspoon a day lowered fasting blood sugar levels by an average of nine points among people with diabetes. Sprinkle the fragrant spice onto oatmeal or add a dash to a cup of coffee. These myths about diabetes could be damaging your health.

Discuss the pros and cons of different drugs with your doctor. Together you can decide which medication is best for you after considering many factors, including costs and other aspects of your health.

Some of the risk factors for getting diabetes include being overweight or obese, leading a sedentary lifestyle, a family history of diabetes, hypertension (high blood pressure), and low levels of the “good” cholesterol (HDL) and elevated levels of triglycerides in the blood.

You can do strength training with hand weights, elastic bands, or weight machines. Try to do strength training two to three times a week. Start with a light weight. Slowly increase the size of your weights as your muscles become stronger.

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A patient-centered approach should be used to guide the choice of pharmacologic agents. Considerations include efficacy, hypoglycemia risk, history of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, impact on weight, potential side effects, renal effects, delivery method (oral versus subcutaneous), cost, and patient preferences. E

This study found dramatically lower rates of kidney, eye, and nervous system complications in patients with tight control of blood glucose. In addition, there was a significant drop in all diabetes-related deaths, including lower risks of heart attack and stroke. Tight control of blood pressure was also found to lower the risks of heart disease and stroke.

In this health topic, we explain the dangers of hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar levels, and diabetes. Hyperglycemia causes many of the warning signs of diabetes listed above. Hyperglycemia may be caused by skipping or forgetting your insulin or oral glucose-lowering medicine, eating too many grams of carbs for the amount of insulin administered, simply eating too many grams of carbs in general, or from stress or infections.

On the other hand, grains in the form of popular foods such as white bread, as well as sugary, processed, or packaged grains, should be avoided or limited to avoid unwanted blood sugar spikes. Also, refined white flour doesn’t contain the same vitamins, minerals, fiber, and health benefits as whole grains.

“We now know that in general, a sugar-containing food like a brownie may have 30 grams of carbohydrate in it, but that brownie will have the same effect on your blood glucose as 2/3 cup of rice or one cup of applesauce, both of which have 30 grams of carbohydrate in them,” says Campbell.

Rapid-acting inhaled insulin used before meals in patients with type 1 diabetes was shown to be noninferior when compared with aspart insulin for A1C lowering, with less hypoglycemia observed with inhaled insulin therapy (21). However, the mean reduction in A1C was greater with aspart (–0.21% vs. –0.40%, satisfying the noninferiority margin of 0.4%), and more patients in the insulin aspart group achieved A1C goals of ≤7.0% (53 mmol/mol) and ≤6.5% (48 mmol/mol). Because inhaled insulin cartridges are only available in 4-, 8-, and 12-unit doses, limited dosing increments to fine-tune prandial insulin doses in type 1 diabetes are a potential limitation.

Call your doctor immediately if one or more of these symptoms occurs in you or your loved one. It is extremely important to receive medical attention—misdiagnosis or leaving your condition untreated can have tragic consequences, including death.

The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends eating fish twice a week. Unlike many meats, seafood is low in unhealthy saturated fat and cholesterol, plus it’s a good source of omega-3 fatty acids — particularly fatty fish such as mackerel, herring, lake trout, sardines, halibut, and albacore tuna. According to the American Heart Association, omega-3 fatty acids lower the risk of arrhythmias (abnormal heartbeats), which can lead to sudden death. Omega-3s also decrease triglyceride levels, slow the growth rate of atherosclerotic plaque, lower blood pressure, and curb inflammation. Further, ongoing studies are evaluating their effectiveness for decreasing the risk for Alzheimer’s disease and dementia.

Jump up ^ The Diabetes Control; Complications Trial Research Group (April 1995). “The effect of intensive diabetes therapy on the development and progression of neuropathy”. Annals of Internal Medicine. 122 (8): 561–68. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-122-8-199504150-00001. PMID 7887548.

Because blood sugar levels fluctuate throughout the day and glucose records are imperfect indicators of these changes, the percentage of hemoglobin which is glycosylated is used as a proxy measure of long-term glycemic control in research trials and clinical care of people with diabetes. This test, the hemoglobin A1c or glycosylated hemoglobin reflects average glucoses over the preceding 2–3 months. In nondiabetic persons with normal glucose metabolism the glycosylated hemoglobin is usually 4–6% by the most common methods (normal ranges may vary by method).

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