“diabetes mellitus lecture”

Diabetes mellitus refers to a group of diseases that affect how your body uses blood sugar (glucose). Glucose is vital to your health because it’s an important source of energy for the cells that make up your muscles and tissues. It’s also your brain’s main source of fuel.

The patient and their family should be taught how to recognize the signs and symptoms of low blood sugar levels. The patient should have a clear plan for treating low blood sugar levels and know when to call 911. Mild symptoms include confusion and sweating. Moreover, these symptoms can progress to lethargy, agitation (sometimes with violent, jerking motions), or even seizures.

Jump up ^ Sarwar N, Gao P, Seshasai SR, Gobin R, Kaptoge S, Di Angelantonio E, Ingelsson E, Lawlor DA, Selvin E, Stampfer M, Stehouwer CD, Lewington S, Pennells L, Thompson A, Sattar N, White IR, Ray KK, Danesh J (2010). “Diabetes mellitus, fasting blood glucose concentration, and risk of vascular disease: A collaborative meta-analysis of 102 prospective studies”. The Lancet. 375 (9733): 2215–22. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60484-9. PMC 2904878 . PMID 20609967.

Write down key personal information, including major stresses or recent life changes. If you’re monitoring your glucose values at home, bring a record of the glucose results, detailing the dates and times of testing.

Physical activity is an important part of controlling diabetes and preventing complications such as heart disease and high blood pressure. “We know that exercise is a very effective way to help bring blood sugars under control for someone with type 2 diabetes,” says Kenneth Snow, M.D., Acting Chief, Adult Diabetes, Joslin Clinic. Try for 30 minutes of moderate exercise, like brisk walking, on most days. Joslin’s Why WAIT? and Easy Start exercise programs are great resources for developing a safe weight loss program.

Type 1 diabetes is managed through use of a variety of insulins. People with T1D must work closely with their medical team to find the right insulin treatment for their condition. Further information about the types of insulin and their effects are available on our insulin page.

You may have heard the Center for Disease Control, CDC, has a diabetes prevention program, which is really a weight loss program. It’s basically 16 educational modules over 16 weeks…It’s kind of like the diet approach, the cookie-cutter approach. You want to do the South Beach Diet, buy the South Beach Diet book and you get the 50 foods that we should eat and the 50 foods you shouldn’t.

Notice some bleeding when you brush or floss? That may be an early sign of gum disease. If it becomes more severe, the bone that supports your teeth can break down, leading to tooth loss. Early gum disease can be reversed with proper brushing, flossing and diet. Research has shown gum disease can worsen if your blood sugar is not under control, so do your best to keep it in check.

High blood sugar (hyperglycemia). Your blood sugar level can rise for many reasons, including eating too much, being sick or not taking enough glucose-lowering medication. Check your blood sugar level often, and watch for signs and symptoms of high blood sugar — frequent urination, increased thirst, dry mouth, blurred vision, fatigue and nausea. If you have hyperglycemia, you’ll need to adjust your meal plan, medications or both.

^ Jump up to: a b c d Ripsin CM, Kang H, Urban RJ (2009). “Management of blood glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus” (PDF). American Family Physician. 79 (1): 29–36. PMID 19145963. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2013-05-05.

One way to approach diabetes is to use integrative holistic medicine, also known as alternative medicine, a medical specialty that focuses on caring for the whole person, treating and preventing disease, and empowering patients to create conditions for optimal health, according to the American Board of Integrative Holistic Medicine.

Jump up ^ Rippe, edited by Richard S. Irwin, James M. (2010). Manual of intensive care medicine (5th ed.). Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 549. ISBN 9780781799928. Archived from the original on 26 October 2015.

A further danger of insulin treatment is that while diabetic microangiopathy is usually explained as the result of hyperglycemia, studies in rats indicate that the higher than normal level of insulin diabetics inject to control their hyperglycemia may itself promote small blood vessel disease.[27] While there is no clear evidence that controlling hyperglycemia reduces diabetic macrovascular and cardiovascular disease, there are indications that intensive efforts to normalize blood glucose levels may worsen cardiovascular and cause diabetic mortality.[55]

Though it may be transient, untreated gestational diabetes can damage the health of the fetus or mother. Risks to the baby include macrosomia (high birth weight), congenital heart and central nervous system abnormalities, and skeletal muscle malformations. Increased levels of insulin in a fetus’s blood may inhibit fetal surfactant production and cause respiratory distress syndrome. A high blood bilirubin level may result from red blood cell destruction. In severe cases, perinatal death may occur, most commonly as a result of poor placental perfusion due to vascular impairment. Labor induction may be indicated with decreased placental function. A Caesarean section may be performed if there is marked fetal distress or an increased risk of injury associated with macrosomia, such as shoulder dystocia.[citation needed]

Like many people who receive an unexpected diabetes diagnosis, John was frightened. He started surfing the Internet and reading as much as he could about the disease. Unfortunately, the information only left him reeling with more questions than answers. To make matters worse, his doctor prescribed medication that made him hypoglycemic.

If the amount of insulin available is insufficient, or if cells respond poorly to the effects of insulin (insulin insensitivity or insulin resistance), or if the insulin itself is defective, then glucose will not be absorbed properly by the body cells that require it, and it will not be stored appropriately in the liver and muscles. The net effect is persistently high levels of blood glucose, poor protein synthesis, and other metabolic derangements, such as acidosis.[53]

Though not routinely used any longer, the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is a gold standard for making the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. It is still commonly used for diagnosing gestational diabetes and in conditions of pre-diabetes, such as polycystic ovary syndrome. With an oral glucose tolerance test, the person fasts overnight (at least eight but not more than 16 hours). Then first, the fasting plasma glucose is tested. After this test, the person receives an oral dose (75 grams) of glucose. There are several methods employed by obstetricians to do this test, but the one described here is standard. Usually, the glucose is in a sweet-tasting liquid that the person drinks. Blood samples are taken at specific intervals to measure the blood glucose.

Exercise is also an important part of diabetes treatment. Regular physical activity helps keep blood sugar levels in a healthy range. It also can reduce the risk of other health problems that people with diabetes may be more likely to get, like heart disease.

I just wanted to drop you a line and thank you for that post… My lab results at the beginning of the month were 230. After just this last week it’s down to 155. I think I’ll be in normal range within a month. Really miraculous… It’s really been a game changer for me already and I wanted you to know how much I appreciated the info and how much of a difference I think it will make in my life.

Long-acting insulin takes effect within 6 to 10 hours. It is usually lasts for 20 to 24 hours. The two long-acting insulin analogues available, glargine and detemir, lower glucose levels fairly evenly over a 24-hour period (without major peaks or troughs).

SI: Yeah, we build everything in house… After the doctor makes all the clinical decisions about the patient, and so forth, what he’s looking at is basically a data pool of all the patients every day, several times a day. When he sees the data, he see’s that drug for that patient needs to go off.

In 1675, Thomas Willis added mellitus to the term, although it is commonly referred to simply as diabetes. Mel in Latin means “honey”; the urine and blood of people with diabetes has excess glucose, and glucose is sweet like honey. Diabetes mellitus could literally mean “siphoning off sweet water”.

Vegas, A. J., Veiseh, O., Gürtler, M., Millman, J. R., Pagliuca, F. W., A. R., … Anderson, D. G. (2016, February 18). Long-term glycemic control using polymer-encapsulated human stem cell–derived beta cells in immune-competent mice. Nature Medicine, 22, 306-311. Retrieved from http://www.nature.com/nm/journal/v22/n3/full/nm.4030.html

In type 2 diabetes, there also is a steady decline of beta cells that adds to the process of elevated blood sugars. Essentially, if someone is resistant to insulin, the body can, to some degree, increase production of insulin and overcome the level of resistance. After time, if production decreases and insulin cannot be released as vigorously, hyperglycemia develops.

Avocados are known for their heart-healthy monounsaturated fat content. When substituting these fats for saturated fat, they can improve cholesterol levels, decreasing your risk of heart disease, according to the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.

While 21 million people have been diagnosed with diabetes, there are about 8.1 million people who are walking around with the disease and don’t know it (27.8 percent of people with diabetes are undiagnosed). Symptoms of diabetes vary from person to person. But, the earlier you catch them, the better it is for your overall health and diabetes care.

Jump up ^ Kubo K, Aoki H, Nanba H (1994). “Anti-diabetic activity present in the fruit body of Grifola frondosa (Maitake). I”. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 17 (8): 1106–10. doi:10.1248/bpb.17.1106. PMID 7820117.

^ Jump up to: a b Risérus U, Willett WC, Hu FB (January 2009). “Dietary fats and prevention of type 2 diabetes”. Progress in Lipid Research. 48 (1): 44–51. doi:10.1016/j.plipres.2008.10.002. PMC 2654180 . PMID 19032965.

In some cases, sugar-free and no-sugar-added foods offer carb and calorie savings, making them smart choices for a diabetic diet. But sometimes these foods cut your carb intake only slightly and may cost more, too. It’s important to be aware of the fat content in these foods as well.

^ Jump up to: a b Petzold A, Solimena M, Knoch KP (2015). “Mechanisms of Beta Cell Dysfunction Associated With Viral Infection”. Curr Diab Rep (Review). 15 (10): 73. doi:10.1007/s11892-015-0654-x. PMC 4539350 . PMID 26280364. So far, none of the hypotheses accounting for virus-induced beta cell autoimmunity has been supported by stringent evidence in humans, and the involvement of several mechanisms rather than just one is also plausible.

The ADA states that the total costs of prediabetes and diabetes in the U.S. are roughly $322 billion according to the latest statistics. Treating diabetes has soared; the average price of insulin nearly tripled between 2002 and 2013.

Because of this understandable stifling of the message, if you are like my Facebook friend and have already experienced the type 2 diabetes cure for yourself — there are thousands of you out there — it is important for you to share your success stories as far and wide as possible. You can simply share this post!

The earliest surviving work with a detailed reference to diabetes is that of Aretaeus of Cappadocia (2nd or early 3rd century CE). He described the symptoms and the course of the disease, which he attributed to the moisture and coldness, reflecting the beliefs of the “Pneumatic School”. He hypothesized a correlation of diabetes with other diseases, and he discussed differential diagnosis from the snakebite which also provokes excessive thirst. His work remained unknown in the West until 1552, when the first Latin edition was published in Venice.[101]

Diabetes mellitus (DM). Merck Manual Professional Version. http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/endocrine-and-metabolic-disorders/diabetes-mellitus-and-disorders-of-carbohydrate-metabolism/diabetes-mellitus-dm. Accessed Nov. 9, 2015.

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