“diabetes mellitus long term complications”

Keep your vaccinations up to date. High blood sugar can weaken your immune system. Get a flu shot every year, and your doctor may recommend the pneumonia vaccine, as well. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) also currently recommends hepatitis B vaccination if you haven’t previously been vaccinated against hepatitis B and you’re an adult ages 19 to 59 with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The most recent CDC guidelines advise vaccination as soon as possible after diagnosis with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. If you are age 60 or older, have diabetes, and haven’t previously received the vaccine, talk to your doctor about whether it’s right for you.

Chicken salad: Combine 2 c mixed dark greens, 2 stalks chopped celery, and ¼ c sliced green or red grapes. Top with 2 oz cooked chicken breast, and drizzle with 2 Tbsp light honey mustard dressing (such as Newman’s Own). Serve with 1 slice reduced-calorie 100% whole grain toast, spread with 1 tsp canola oil soft tub margarine.

Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) due to medications is a symptom that people with both forms of diabetes may encounter. It is important to recognize the signs and symptoms of low blood sugar, which may include:

Jump up ^ Ali, S.; Stone, M. A.; Peters, J. L.; Davies, M. J.; Khunti, K. (2006-11-01). “The prevalence of co-morbid depression in adults with Type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis”. Diabetic Medicine. 23 (11): 1165–73. doi:10.1111/j.1464-5491.2006.01943.x. ISSN 1464-5491.

In autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes, the immune system mistakenly manufactures antibodies and inflammatory cells that are directed against and cause damage to patients’ own body tissues. In persons with type 1 diabetes, the beta cells of the pancreas, which are responsible for insulin production, are attacked by the misdirected immune system. It is believed that the tendency to develop abnormal antibodies in type 1 diabetes is, in part, genetically inherited, though the details are not fully understood.

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that diabetes mellitus resulted in 1.5 million deaths in 2012, making it the 8th leading cause of death.[6][92] However another 2.2 million deaths worldwide were attributable to high blood glucose and the increased risks of cardiovascular disease and other associated complications (e.g. kidney failure), which often lead to premature death and are often listed as the underlying cause on death certificates rather than diabetes.[92][95] For example, in 2014, the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) estimated that diabetes resulted in 4.9 million deaths worldwide,[16] using modeling to estimate the total number of deaths that could be directly or indirectly attributed to diabetes.[17]

Age-Adjusted Percentage of Adults Aged 18 Years or Older with Diagnosed Diabetes Performing Daily Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose, United States, 1994-2010 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)

Apart from these physical symptoms, some psychological symptoms may also be seen in women affected by diabetes. They may experience extreme lethargy, agitation, and sometimes may also feel irritable without any reason.

Polycystic ovary syndrome. For women, having polycystic ovary syndrome — a common condition characterized by irregular menstrual periods, excess hair growth and obesity — increases the risk of diabetes.

Jump up ^ Kyu, Hmwe H; Bachman, Victoria F; Alexander, Lily T; Mumford, John Everett; Afshin, Ashkan; Estep, Kara; Veerman, J Lennert; Delwiche, Kristen; Iannarone, Marissa L; Moyer, Madeline L; Cercy, Kelly; Vos, Theo; Murray, Christopher J L; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H (9 August 2016). “Physical activity and risk of breast cancer, colon cancer, diabetes, ischemic heart disease, and ischemic stroke events: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013”. BMJ. 354: i3857. doi:10.1136/bmj.i3857. PMC 4979358 . PMID 27510511.

In patients with type 2 diabetes and established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, antihyperglycemic therapy should begin with lifestyle management and and subsequently incorporate an agent proven to reduce major adverse cardiovascular events and cardiovascular mortality (currently empagliflozin and liraglutide), after considering drug-specific and patient factors (Table 8.1). A*

The glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) agonists, or incretin mimetics, are injectable agents that help the pancreas to produce insulin more efficiently. They bind to GLP-1 receptors and stimulate glucose dependent insulin release. These drugs inhibit glucagon secretion and slow gastric emptying. In turn, this prevents a steep rise in blood glucose levels after eating.

Jump up ^ Qaseem A, Vijan S, Snow V, Cross JT, Weiss KB, Owens DK; Vijan; Snow; Cross; Weiss; Owens; Clinical Efficacy Assessment Subcommittee of the American College of Physicians (September 2007). “Glycemic control and type 2 diabetes mellitus: the optimal hemoglobin A1c targets. A guidance statement from the American College of Physicians”. Annals of Internal Medicine. 147 (6): 417–22. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-147-6-200709180-00012. PMID 17876024. Retrieved 19 July 2008.

Some women with diabetes wonder if it’s safe to become pregnant. The good news is that you can have a healthy pregnancy after being diagnosed with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. However, it’s important to manage your condition before and during pregnancy to avoid complications.

Jump up ^ Arguedas, JA; Perez, MI; Wright, JM (Jul 8, 2009). Arguedas, Jose Agustin, ed. “Treatment blood pressure targets for hypertension”. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3): CD004349. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004349.pub2. PMID 19588353.

Similarly, adults with diabetes are also two to five times more likely than those without diabetes to develop cataracts. Cataracts forms when the eye’s clear lens becomes cloudy, which blocks normal light from entering. Due to poor blood flow and nerve damage, diabetics are also more likely to develop cataracts at a younger age and have them progress faster.

While many people are asymptomatic, Silver says there are plenty of undiagnosed diabetes patients who do have symptoms, but just aren’t aware that diabetes is the cause. “People who have family members with diabetes are more in tune with the symptoms, and so they tend to get diagnosed sooner,” she says.

Final recommendation statement: Abnormal blood glucose and type 2 diabetes mellitus: Screening. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Document/RecommendationStatementFinal/screening-for-abnormal-blood-glucose-and-type-2-diabetes.

That’s a big deal because early diagnoses can help prevent the disease from inflicting permanent damage such as kidney or nerve damage. If you’re overweight or obese, or have a family history of diabetes, it’s worth asking your doctor if a test for diabetes is appropriate.

Supplements don’t cure diabetes, either. Some natural supplements may interact dangerously with your diabetes medication. Others have been shown to help improve your diabetes, but always check with your doctor before taking any supplement.

Embracing your healthy-eating plan is the best way to keep your blood glucose level under control and prevent diabetes complications. And if you need to lose weight, you can tailor it to your specific goals.

Jump up ^ Konno, S; Tortorelis, DG; Fullerton, SA; Samadi, AA; Hettiarachchi, J; Tazaki, H (2001). “A possible hypoglycaemic effect of maitake mushroom on Type 2 diabetic patients”. Diabetic medicine. 18 (12): 1010. doi:10.1046/j.1464-5491.2001.00532-5.x. PMID 11903406.

G.I. Diet: lowering the glycemic index of one’s diet can improve the control of diabetes.[51][52] This includes avoidance of such foods as potatoes cooked in certain ways and white bread. It instead favors multi-grain and sourdough breads, legumes and whole grains that are converted more slowly to glucose in the bloodstream.

American Diabetes Association (ADA). Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes – 2018. Diabetes Care 2018 Jan; 41(Supplement 1): S1-S2. Accessed Jan. 21, 2018 at https://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/diacare/suppl/2017/12/08/41.Supplement_1.DC1/DC_41_S1_Combined.pdf

In diabetic patients, glucose cannot move efficiently from the blood into cells, so blood glucose levels remain high. This not only starves all the cells, which need the glucose for fuel, but also harms certain organs and tissues exposed to the high glucose levels over time.

You may eat normally and constantly feel hungry, yet continue to lose weight. This can be seen with type 1 diabetes. If your body isn’t getting enough energy from the foods that you eat, it will break down other energy sources available within the body. This includes your fat and protein stores. When this happens, it can cause you to lose weight.

Cushing’s syndrome, sometimes referred to as hypercortisolism, is a hormonal disorder caused by prolonged exposure to high levels of the hormone cortisol. Symptoms may include obesity, thinning arms and legs, a rounded face, and increased fat around the neck. Some causes of Cushing’s syndrome is from taking glucocorticoid hormones such as prednisone for inflammatory diseases. Treatment for Cushing’s syndrome depends on the cause.

Another symptom of diabetes that is seen in women is the occurrence of skin infections as well as vaginal yeast infection. Women with diabetes may also experience urinary tract infections very frequently.

Guided imagery, biofeedback, meditation, hypnotherapy, and yoga reduce stress hormones, which in turn may help stabilize blood sugar levels. Biofeedback may also help lower blood pressure, but more research is needed to discover its role in the treatment of diabetes and high blood pressure.

This sweet seasoning contains a compound called hydroxychalcone, which may stimulate insulin receptors on cells and, in turn, improve your body’s ability to absorb blood sugar. Researchers from the University of California-Davis recently reviewed eight different studies on cinnamon and reported that about half to one teaspoon a day lowered fasting blood sugar levels by an average of nine points among people with diabetes. Sprinkle the fragrant spice onto oatmeal or add a dash to a cup of coffee. These myths about diabetes could be damaging your health.

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