^ Jump up to: a b Schulman, AP; del Genio, F; Sinha, N; Rubino, F (September–October 2009). “”Metabolic” surgery for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus”. Endocrine Practice. 15 (6): 624–31. doi:10.4158/EP09170.RAR. PMID 19625245.
Jump up ^ Cukierman, T (8 Nov 2005). “Cognitive decline and dementia in diabetes – systematic overview of prospective observational studies”. Springer-Verlag. doi:10.1007/s00125-005-0023-4/fulltext.html (inactive 2018-01-25). Retrieved 28 Apr 2013.
Gestational diabetes. If you developed gestational diabetes when you were pregnant, your risk of developing prediabetes and type 2 diabetes later increases. If you gave birth to a baby weighing more than 9 pounds (4 kilograms), you’re also at risk of type 2 diabetes.
Per the World Health Organization people with fasting glucose levels from 6.1 to 6.9 mmol/l (110 to 125 mg/dl) are considered to have impaired fasting glucose. people with plasma glucose at or above 7.8 mmol/l (140 mg/dl), but not over 11.1 mmol/l (200 mg/dl), two hours after a 75 g oral glucose load are considered to have impaired glucose tolerance. Of these two prediabetic states, the latter in particular is a major risk factor for progression to full-blown diabetes mellitus, as well as cardiovascular disease. The American Diabetes Association since 2003 uses a slightly different range for impaired fasting glucose of 5.6 to 6.9 mmol/l (100 to 125 mg/dl).
An implantable device that could protect beta cells in the pancreas has been designed and tested on mice. Researchers found that the device protected a mouse’s pancreatic beta cells from being attacked by the immune system for up to 6 months.
If you develop hypoglycemia during the night, you might wake with sweat-soaked pajamas or a headache. Due to a natural rebound effect, nighttime hypoglycemia might cause an unusually high blood sugar reading first thing in the morning.
Jump up ^ Roberts CK, Won D, Pruthi S, Kurtovic S, Sindhu RK, Vaziri ND, Barnard RJ (2006). “Effect of a short-term diet and exercise intervention on oxidative stress, inflammation, MMP-9, and monocyte chemotactic activity in men with metabolic syndrome factors”. J Appl Physiol. 100 (5): 1657–65. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.01292.2005. PMID 16357066.
In patients with type 2 diabetes and established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, after lifestyle management and metformin, the antihyperglycemic agent canagliflozin may be considered to reduce major adverse cardiovascular events, based on drug-specific and patient factors (Table 8.1). C*
Low blood sugar. Sometimes babies of mothers with gestational diabetes develop low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) shortly after birth because their own insulin production is high. Prompt feedings and sometimes an intravenous glucose solution can the baby’s blood sugar level to normal.
Tuna salad: Mix 3 oz water-packed tuna with 2 stalks chopped celery, 4 chopped green olives, and 1 tsp regular (or1 T reduced-fat mayonnaise). Add 1 Tbsp seasoned rice vinegar, if desired. Scoop tuna onto 2 c mixed dark greens, and top with 1 Tbsp chopped almonds. Serve with 1 oz 100% whole grain crackers.
Because they don’t require refrigeration and are highly portable, nuts are a great snack choice. One caution: Because nuts are high in calories, it’s best to portion them before eating, rather than eating them out of a bag or can. Serving sizes:
If they haven’t, treat again and retest in another 15 minutes. If you lose consciousness, a family member or close contact may need to give you an emergency injection of glucagon, a hormone that stimulates the release of sugar into the blood.
McCulloch D, Nathan D, Mulder J. Patient Education: Diabetes mellitus type 2: Overview (Beyond the Basics). UpToDate. Wolters Kluwer. Lasted Updated Feb. 12, 2016. Accessed April 4, 2017 at https://www.uptodate.com/contents/diabetes-mellitus-type-2-overview-beyond-the-basics
Insulin is usually given as three or four injections per day, generally around mealtimes. Dosage is individualized and is tailored to the patient’s specific needs by the health-care professional. Longer-acting insulin formulations are typically administered once or twice each day.
By starting a diabetic diet, you’re not necessarily cutting back on carbs. You’re changing the type of carbs you eat. Refined carbs like grains, desserts and sugary beverages get replaced by whole, complex carbs. Controlling the amount that you have at one sitting also keeps blood glucose levels as stable as possible.
Insulin is what regulates glucose levels in the blood, and it’s normally tightly controlled by the pancreas, which responds to how much glucose is detected in the blood at any one time. This system fails when someone has diabetes, causing various symptoms to emerge that can affect nearly every system in the body. With diabetes, signs of blood sugar fluctuations often include changes in your appetite, weight, energy, sleep, digestion and more.