“diabetes research paper topics”

Basaglar (insulin glargine) approved in 2015 is a “follow-on” insulin to Lantus, and Admelog (insulin lispro) was approved as “follow on” for Humalog in 2017. A “follow on” insulin (also called a biosimilar in other countries beside the U.S.) are approved via an abbreviated FDA process (the 505(b)(2) pathway) in which the manufacturer demonstrates that the “add-on” product is as safe and effective as the original insulin. These insulins have the same active ingredients, but cannot be substituted for each other at the pharmacy without your doctor’s approval. The new follow on insulins may only save you a little at the pharmacy compared to the original brands, but check the manufacturers website for both all products to determine cost savings.

Eating a balanced diet is vital for people who have diabetes, so work with your doctor or dietitian to set up a menu plan. If you have type 1 diabetes, the timing of your insulin dosage is determined by activity and diet. When you eat and how much you eat are just as important as what you eat. Usually, doctors recommend three small meals and three to four snacks every day to maintain the proper balance between sugar and insulin in the blood.

Apart from these physical symptoms, some psychological symptoms may also be seen in women affected by diabetes. They may experience extreme lethargy, agitation, and sometimes may also feel irritable without any reason.

“I try to give lifestyle strategies a chance to manage type 2 diabetes,” says Sivitz, adding that people with a very high blood sugar level may need to start medication and lifestyle changes at the same time.

Miscarriage is the medical term for the spontaneous loss of pregnancy from conception to 20 weeks gestation. Risk factors for a woman having a miscarriage include cigarette smoking, older maternal age, radiation exposure, previous miscarriage, maternal weight, illicit drug use, use of NSAIDs, and trauma or anatomical abnormalities to the uterus. There are five classified types of miscarriage: 1) threatened abortion; 2) incomplete abortion; 3) complete abortion; 4) missed abortion; and (5 septic abortion. While there are no specific treatments to stop a miscarriage, a woman’s doctor may advise avoiding certain activities, bed rest, etc. If a woman believes she has had a miscarriage, she needs to seek prompt medical attention.

Men have more muscle mass in general and therefore may require more calories. Muscle burns more calories per hour than fat. (Thus also one reason to regularly exercise and build up muscle!) Also, people whose activity level is low will have less daily caloric needs.

Jump up ^ Washington R.E.; Andrews R.M.; Mutter R.L. (November 2013). “Emergency Department Visits for Adults with Diabetes, 2010”. HCUP Statistical Brief #167. Rockville MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Archived from the original on 2013-12-03.

In addition, it is often difficult to titrate doses to maximize blood glucose lowering when combination products are used. These medications may be best used when a patient has been established on a set dose of medication with minimal fluctuations in blood glucose.

Jump up ^ Cox DJ, Penberthy JK, Zrebiec J, Weinger K, Aikens JE, Frier BM, Stetson B, DeGroot M, Trief P, et al. (2003). “Diabetes and Driving Mishaps: Frequency and correlations from a multinational survey”. Diabetes Care. 26 (8): 2329–34. doi:10.2337/diacare.26.8.2329. PMID 12882857.

While you’re losing weight with Nutrisystem® D®, you’ll learn healthy habits like portion control and how to shop for and incorporate the right kinds of fresh grocery foods like lean protein, low-fat dairy, fruits and veggies.

Alcohol: Alcohol can dangerously increase blood sugar and lead to liver toxicity. Research published in Annals of Internal Medicine found that there was a 43 percent increased incidence of diabetes associated with heavy consumption of alcohol, which is defined as three or more drinks per day. (8) Beer and sweet liquors are especially high in carbohydrates and should be avoided.

Type 1 diabetes (also called “juvenile”/young diabetes) is different than type 2 diabetes because it occurs when insulin-producing cells of the pancreas get destroyed by the immune system, therefore no insulin is produced and blood sugar levels go unmanaged. Type 1 diabetes tends to develop at a younger age, usually before someone turns 20 years old. (11a) In fact, something called latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is a disorder where the progression of autoimmune β-cell failure is slow. LADA patients usually do not require insulin, at least during the first 6 months after a diabetes diagnosis. (11b)

You also might hear about alternative treatments for diabetes, such as herbal remedies and vitamin or mineral supplements. These practices can be risky, especially when people stop following the treatment plan their doctor has given them. So get the facts by talking to your diabetes health care team.

Following the treatment plan can help a person stay healthy, but it’s not a cure for diabetes. Right now, there’s no cure for diabetes, so people with type 1 diabetes will need treatment for the rest of their lives. The good news is that sticking to the plan can help people feel healthy and avoid diabetes problems later.

HbA1C (A1C or glycosylated hemoglobin test) The A1C can be used for the diagnosis of both prediabetes and diabetes.  The A1C test measures your average blood glucose control for the past 2 to 3 months. This test is more convenient because no fasting is required. An A1C of 5.7% to 6.4% means that you are at high risk for the development of diabetes and you have prediabetes. Diabetes is diagnosed when the A1C is 6.5% or higher.

Your health care provider will also monitor your blood sugar level during labor. If your blood sugar rises, your baby may release high levels of insulin — which can lead to low blood sugar right after birth.

High blood glucose in diabetic people is a risk factor for developing gum and teeth problems, especially in post puberty and aging individuals. Diabetic patients have greater chances of developing oral health problems such as tooth decay, salivary gland dysfunction, fungal infections, inflammatory skin disease, periodontal disease or taste impairment and thrush of the mouth.[70] The oral problems in persons suffering from diabetes can be prevented with a good control of the blood sugar levels, regular check-ups and a very good oral hygiene. By maintaining a good oral status, diabetic persons prevent losing their teeth as a result of various periodontal conditions.

Type 1 and type 2 diabetes were identified as separate conditions for the first time by the Indian physicians Sushruta and Charaka in 400–500 CE with type 1 associated with youth and type 2 with being overweight.[99] The term “mellitus” or “from honey” was added by the Briton John Rolle in the late 1700s to separate the condition from diabetes insipidus, which is also associated with frequent urination.[99] Effective treatment was not developed until the early part of the 20th century, when Canadians Frederick Banting and Charles Herbert Best isolated and purified insulin in 1921 and 1922.[99] This was followed by the development of the long-acting insulin NPH in the 1940s.[99]

Lean-body salad: Toss 2 c mixed dark greens, ½ c canned garbanzo beans (rinsed well), 1 oz reduced-fat Mozzarella shredded cheese and 2 Tbsp light Italian dressing. Serve with 1 fresh peach or ½ c canned peaches (in juice or water).

The patient’s urine should be checked for protein (microalbumin) on a regular basis, at least one to two times per year. Protein in the urine is an early sign of diabetic nephropathy, a leading cause of kidney failure.

A few different approaches to creating a diabetes diet are available to help you keep your blood glucose level within a normal range. With a dietitian’s help, you may find one or a combination of the following methods works for you:

The statistics are alarming, and they get even worse. Another 86 million people have prediabetes, with up to 30 percent of them developing type 2 diabetes within five years. And perhaps the most concerning, about a third of people who have diabetes — approximately 8 million adults — are believed to be undiagnosed and unaware.

Symptoms of type 1 diabetes often appear suddenly and are often the reason for checking blood sugar levels. Because symptoms of other types of diabetes and prediabetes come on more gradually or may not be evident, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) has recommended screening guidelines. The ADA recommends that the following people be screened for diabetes:

HHNS is caused by sky-high blood sugar that turns blood thick and syrupy. It tends to be more common in older people with type 2 diabetes, and it’s often preceded by an illness or infection. HHNS usually develops over days or weeks. Call your doctor or seek immediate medical care if you have signs or symptoms of this condition.

Jump up ^ The Diabetes Control; Complications Trial Research Group (April 1995). “The effect of intensive diabetes therapy on the development and progression of neuropathy”. Annals of Internal Medicine. 122 (8): 561–68. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-122-8-199504150-00001. PMID 7887548.

Type 2 diabetes is a dangerous disease that can lead to many other health conditions when it’s not managed properly, including kidney disease, blindness, leg and food amputations, nerve damage, and even death. (1)

Not satisfied with this, further internet research threw up a more drastic approach. Scientists at Newcastle University had devised a radical low-calorie diet that studies suggested could reverse diabetes in under eight weeks.

Insulin is a hormone that is produced by specialized cells (beta cells) of the pancreas. (The pancreas is a deep-seated organ in the abdomen located behind the stomach.) In addition to helping glucose enter the cells, insulin is also important in tightly regulating the level of glucose in the blood. After a meal, the blood glucose level rises. In response to the increased glucose level, the pancreas normally releases more insulin into the bloodstream to help glucose enter the cells and lower blood glucose levels after a meal. When the blood glucose levels are lowered, the insulin release from the pancreas is turned down. It is important to note that even in the fasting state there is a low steady release of insulin than fluctuates a bit and helps to maintain a steady blood sugar level during fasting. In normal individuals, such a regulatory system helps to keep blood glucose levels in a tightly controlled range. As outlined above, in patients with diabetes, the insulin is either absent, relatively insufficient for the body’s needs, or not used properly by the body. All of these factors cause elevated levels of blood glucose (hyperglycemia).

Salad with tomatoes, carrots, beets, onions, cucumbers, black olives, and “whatever else you desire.” Add pumpkin seeds, walnuts, and feta or goat cheese. Top with grilled chicken, tuna, or a hard-boiled egg. Dress with olive oil and vinegar or a lemon tahini dressing. Use mustard, garlic, or Italian seasonings to flavor the salad.

In patients with type 2 diabetes and established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, antihyperglycemic therapy should begin with lifestyle management and metformin and subsequently incorporate an agent proven to reduce major adverse cardiovascular events and cardiovascular mortality (currently empagliflozin and liraglutide), after considering drug-specific and patient factors (Table 8.1). A*

Medications used to treat diabetes do so by lowering blood sugar levels. There are a number of different classes of anti-diabetic medications. Some are available by mouth, such as metformin, while others are only available by injection such as GLP-1 agonists. Type 1 diabetes can only be treated with insulin, typically with a combination of regular and NPH insulin, or synthetic insulin analogs.[citation needed]

Over time, having too much glucose in your blood can cause serious problems. It can damage your eyes, kidneys, and nerves. Diabetes can also cause heart disease, stroke and even the need to remove a limb. Pregnant women can also get diabetes, called gestational diabetes.

The good news is that this symptom is reversible once blood sugar levels are returned to normal or near normal. But let your blood sugar go unchecked for long periods and the glucose will cause permanent damage, possibly even blindness. And that’s not reversible.

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