Because type 2 diabetes can lead to some serious health complications, it’s important to be aware of any diabetes warning signs and get tested for diabetes, if you have these symptoms. Treating diabetes early, when treatment is most effective, can help prevent these diabetes complications.
For Type 1 diabetics there will always be a need for insulin injections throughout their life. However, both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetics can see dramatic effects on their blood sugars through controlling their diet, and some Type 2 diabetics can fully control the disease by dietary modification. As diabetes can lead to many other complications it is critical to maintain blood sugars as close to normal as possible and diet is the leading factor in this level of control.
Pramlintide, an amylin analog, is an agent that delays gastric emptying, blunts pancreatic secretion of glucagon, and enhances satiety. It is FDA-approved for use in adults with type 1 diabetes. It has been shown to induce weight loss and lower insulin doses. Concurrent reduction of prandial insulin dosing is required to reduce the risk of severe hypoglycemia.
Reaching and keeping a healthy weight are very important for managing diabetes. You should also follow your recommended diabetes diet, exercise regularly, manage your stress, and see your doctor regularly for necessary checkups.
Pay attention to your feet. Wash your feet daily in lukewarm water. Dry them gently, especially between the toes, and moisturize with lotion. Check your feet every day for blisters, cuts, sores, redness and swelling. Consult your doctor if you have a sore or other foot problem that isn’t healing.
Control and outcomes of both types 1 and 2 diabetes may be improved by patients using home glucose meters to regularly measure their glucose levels. Glucose monitoring is both expensive (largely due to the cost of the consumable test strips) and requires significant commitment on the part of the patient. The effort and expense may be worthwhile for patients when they use the values to sensibly adjust food, exercise, and oral medications or insulin. These adjustments are generally made by the patients themselves following training by a clinician.
In this health topic, we explain the dangers of hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar levels, and diabetes. Hyperglycemia causes many of the warning signs of diabetes listed above. Hyperglycemia may be caused by skipping or forgetting your insulin or oral glucose-lowering medicine, eating too many grams of carbs for the amount of insulin administered, simply eating too many grams of carbs in general, or from stress or infections.
Schedule a yearly physical and regular eye exams. Your regular diabetes checkups aren’t meant to replace yearly physicals or routine eye exams. During the physical, your doctor will look for any diabetes-related complications and screen for other medical problems. Your eye care specialist will check for signs of retinal damage, cataracts and glaucoma.
Other drug classes that can be used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes include the thiazolidinediones such as Avandia (rosiglitazone) and Actos (pioglitazone); the DPP-4 inhibitors, which include Januvia (sitagliptin), Onglyza (saxagliptin), Tradjenta (linagliptin), Nesina (alogliptin); the SGLT-2 inhibitors like Invokana (canagliflozin), Farxiga (dapagliflozin), Invokamet (canagliflozin/metformin), and Jardiance (empagliflozin). Another class, known as the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists (or incretin mimetics), are subcutaneously injected agents that include Tanzeum (albiglutide), Byetta (exenatide), and Victoza (liraglutide).
Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) due to medications is a symptom that people with both forms of diabetes may encounter. It is important to recognize the signs and symptoms of low blood sugar, which may include:
The FDA approved canagliflozin (Invokana) in March 2013 and dapagliflozin (Farxiga) in January 2014 to improve blood sugar control (glycemic control) in adults with type 2 diabetes. These oral medications belong to a class of drugs known as sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. They work by blocking the kidneys’ reabsorption of glucose, leading to increased glucose excretion and reduction of blood sugar levels.
Monogenic Forms of Diabetes: Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus and Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young (National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases)
Have you ever noticed a cold sore or a cut in your mouth that doesn’t quite seem to go away? This can be another way that diabetes may affect your mouth. Poor control of blood sugar can keep injuries from healing quickly and properly. If you have something in your mouth that you feel isn’t healing as it should, see your dentist.
A biological approach to the artificial pancreas is to implant bioengineered tissue containing islet cells, which would secrete the amounts of insulin, amylin and glucagon needed in response to sensed glucose.
Jump up ^ Willi C, Bodenmann P, Ghali WA, Faris PD, Cornuz J (Dec 12, 2007). “Active smoking and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis”. JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association. 298 (22): 2654–64. doi:10.1001/jama.298.22.2654. PMID 18073361.
While certain lifestyle changes are key to managing diabetes, whether you can actually turn back time so that it’s like you never had diabetes is a different matter. That depends on how long you’ve had the condition, how severe it is, your genes.
Various treatments exist for diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is treated with insulin (by multiple daily injections or pump), diabetic diet, and other lifestyle modifications. Type 2 diabetes is generally treated with diabetic diet, lifestyle changes such as moderate to vigorous exercise, and medication(s).
Low glycemic index foods also may be helpful. The glycemic index is a measure of how quickly a food causes a rise in your blood sugar. Foods with a high glycemic index raise your blood sugar quickly. Low glycemic index foods may help you achieve a more stable blood sugar. Foods with a low glycemic index typically are foods that are higher in fiber.
Type 2 diabetes is usually controlled with diet, weight loss, exercise, and/or oral medications. However, more than half of all people with type 2 diabetes require insulin to control their blood sugar levels at some point during the course of their illness.
We know the arguments against eating carbs. Other than fiber, carbs are either sugars or starches that break down into sugars. Since people with diabetes have little to no effective insulin, which is necessary for handling sugars (glucose), they probably shouldn’t eat them.