“The most important tool for shopping is the nutrition label,” says Susan Weiner, RD, CDE. “Practice label-reading at home so that you don’t have to spend 10 minutes per food item when you’re in the market.”
The fluctuation of blood sugar (red) and the sugar-lowering hormone insulin (blue) in humans during the course of a day with three meals. One of the effects of a sugar-rich vs a starch-rich meal is highlighted.
Insulin is a crucial hormone because it allows macronutrients to be properly broken down and transported to cells to be used for “fuel” (or energy). We need insulin to carry glucose through the bloodstream to cells in order to provide enough energy for muscle growth and development, brain activity, and so on. Insulin lowers the amount of sugar in your bloodstream, so as blood sugar levels drop, normally so does secretion of insulin from the pancreas.
Type 2 DM begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly. As the disease progresses a lack of insulin may also develop. This form was previously referred to as “non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus” (NIDDM) or “adult-onset diabetes”. The most common cause is excessive body weight and insufficient exercise.
^ Jump up to: a b c American Diabetes Association (Jan 2014). “Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2014”. Diabetes Care. 37 (suppl 1): S14–S80. doi:10.2337/dc14-S014. PMID 24357209. Retrieved 1 Nov 2014.
Diabetes, short for diabetes mellitus, refers to a variety of metabolic disorders that cause high blood sugar levels over a protracted period of time. They occur either due to inefficient insulin production by the pancreas or to an inability by cells to react properly to the insulin that is released. Unfortunately, there is no current cure for diabetes, and treatment only seeks to prevent the various symptoms as well as the medical complications associated with the disease. The earlier it is detected, the sooner one may be able to begin treatment for diabetic woes. For the purpose of early detection, the following signs are what one must watch out for.
Some people who have type 2 diabetes can achieve their target blood sugar levels with diet and exercise alone, but many also need diabetes medications or insulin therapy. The decision about which medications are best depends on many factors, including your blood sugar level and any other health problems you have. Your doctor might even combine drugs from different classes to help you control your blood sugar in several different ways.
The most common form of the disease in dogs is Type 1, insulin-dependent diabetes, which occurs when the pancreas is incapable of producing or secreting adequate levels of insulin. Dogs who have Type I require insulin therapy to survive. Type II diabetes is found in cats and is a lack of normal response to insulin.
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Exercise: Regular exercise, in any form, can help reduce the risk of developing diabetes. Activity can also reduce the risk of developing complications of diabetes such as heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, blindness, and leg ulcers.
Abnormal cholesterol and triglyceride levels. If you have low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), or “good,” cholesterol, your risk of type 2 diabetes is higher. Triglycerides are another type of fat carried in the blood. People with high levels of triglycerides have an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Your doctor can let you know what your cholesterol and triglyceride levels are.
When you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes, you need to be very aware of not only what you eat, but also when and how much you eat. A Certified Diabetes Educator (CDE) at Joslin can work with you to develop a healthy meal plan that fits your lifestyle. Following a meal plan can also help you lose weight and lower your risk of developing complications.
Low blood sugar can often be corrected by drinking a beverage that contains carbohydrates. Frequent episodes of low blood sugar should be discussed with a doctor. Diabetes medications may need to be changed or reduced in order to correct the problem.
Your doctor will check your blood glucose levels, and if you are diagnosed with diabetes, your doctor will guide you on a plan to keep your blood sugar levels normal. If your diabetes is mild, your doctor will likely recommend a diet plan, exercise, and weight loss. Your doctor may prescribe medications that help reduce blood sugar levels. In some women, insulin may be necessary.
Type 2 diabetes (T2D): Although the pancreas still secretes insulin, the body of someone with type 2 diabetes is partially or completely incapable of responding to insulin. This is often referred to as insulin resistance. The pancreas tries to overcome this resistance by secreting more and more insulin. People with insulin resistance develop type 2 diabetes when they fail to secrete enough insulin to cope with their body’s demands.
Kidney damage (nephropathy). The kidneys contain millions of tiny blood vessel clusters (glomeruli) that filter waste from your blood. Diabetes can damage this delicate filtering system. Severe damage can lead to kidney failure or irreversible end-stage kidney disease, which may require dialysis or a kidney transplant.
An insulin pump may also be an option. The pump is a device about the size of a cellphone worn on the outside of your body. A tube connects the reservoir of insulin to a catheter that’s inserted under the skin of your abdomen. A tubeless pump that works wirelessly is also now available. You program an insulin pump to dispense specific amounts of insulin. It can be adjusted to deliver more or less insulin depending on meals, activity level and blood sugar level.
Keep your blood pressure and cholesterol under control. Eating healthy foods and exercising regularly can go a long way toward controlling high blood pressure and cholesterol. Medication may be needed, too.
Know your A1c. The A1c test gives you your average blood sugar level over the few months before the test. Generally, A1c is checked at least 2 times a year. Talk with your doctor about how often you should have this test.
Buse, J. B., Caprio, S., Cefalu, W. T., Ceriello, A., Del Prato, s., Inzucchi, S. E., … Kirkman, M. S. (2009, November). How do we define cure of diabetes? Diabetes Care, 32(11), 2133-2135. Retrieved from http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/32/11/2133
There is no prescribed diet plan for diabetes. Eating plans are tailored to fit each individual’s needs, schedules, and eating habits. Each diabetes diet plan must be balanced with the intake of insulin and oral diabetes medications. In general, the principles of a healthy diabetes diet are the same for everyone. Consumption of various foods in a healthy diet includes whole grains, fruits, non-fat dairy products, beans, lean meats, vegetarian substitutes, poultry or fish.
Overview: The premise of this program is learning how to manage real food decisions in real-life situations. “It’s structured like a four-legged table, and each leg — food, behavior change, activity, and support — is essential for success,” says Stephanie Rost, M.S., RD, of Weight Watchers International. A new two-week Simple Start feature helps you eat right and lose weight without a focus on tracking food points. Meetings, plus extensive online and smartphone tools, help you stay on track. Membership in the program averages less than $10 a week.
It is important to know the signs and symptoms of diabetes to detect the disease early and get it under control before any irreversible damage is done to the body. Recent studies indicate that early detection and treatment of diabetes can decrease the chance of developing complications from the disease.
Gastric Bypass Surgery Helps Diabetes But Does Not Cure It Gastric bypass surgery for with type two diabetes, in most cases, is either remitted or relapses within five years, researchers from the Group Health Research Institute reported in… Read now
So how do blood glucose levels relate to type 1 diabetes? People with type 1 diabetes can no longer produce insulin. This means that glucose stays in the bloodstream and doesn’t get into the cells, causing blood glucose levels to go too high.
^ Jump up to: a b Schulman, AP; del Genio, F; Sinha, N; Rubino, F (September–October 2009). “”Metabolic” surgery for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus”. Endocrine Practice. 15 (6): 624–31. doi:10.4158/EP09170.RAR. PMID 19625245.
Alzheimer’s disease. Type 2 diabetes may increase the risk of Alzheimer’s disease. The poorer your blood sugar control, the greater the risk appears to be. Although there are theories as to how these disorders might be connected, none has yet been proved.