Diabetes comes from Greek, and it means a “siphon”. Aretus the Cappadocian, a Greek physician during the second century A.D., named the condition diabainein. He described patients who were passing too much water (polyuria) – like a siphon. The word became “diabetes” from the English adoption of the Medieval Latin diabetes.
If you’re at high risk of gestational diabetes — for example, if you were obese at the start of your pregnancy, you had gestational diabetes during a previous pregnancy, or you have a mother, father, sibling or child with diabetes — your doctor may test for diabetes at your first prenatal visit.
High in soluble fiber, oats are slower to digest than processed carbs. Eat them and you’ll release glucose into the bloodstream more slowly, which will prevent spikes in your blood-sugar levels. In a 2012 study from Sweden’s Karolinska University, researchers found that eating four servings of whole grains daily reduced the risk for developing prediabetes by 30 percent. Other research shows that if you eat whole grains you experience less inflammation, which could lower the odds of your developing insulin resistance, heart disease, and high blood pressure. These science-backed strategies can work to reverse diabetes.
Treatment of type 1 diabetes involves multiple daily injections of insulin, usually a combination of short-acting insulin (for example, lispro [Humalog] or aspart [NovoLog]) and a long-acting insulin (for example, NPH, Lente, glargine [Lantus], detemir [Levemir]).
According to the latest American Heart Association’s Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics, about 8 million people 18 years and older in the United States have type 2 diabetes and do not know it. Often type 1 diabetes remains undiagnosed until symptoms become severe and hospitalization is required. Left untreated, diabetes can cause a number of health complications. That’s why it’s so important to both know what warning signs to look for and to see a health care provider regularly for routine wellness screenings.
Afrezza (insulin human) Inhalation Powder was approved by the FDA in June 2014. Afrezza is an ultra rapid acting inhaled insulin indicated to improve blood sugar control in adult patients with diabetes. It is an insulin given through an inhaler at meals that helps to control blood sugar spikes due to mealtime insulin. It works by lowering levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood. It can be used in either type 1 or type 2 diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, it is given with injectable insulin.
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‘I realised that this led to a sudden shift of fat away from the liver and pancreas. I thought we could test this by taking people with type 2 diabetes and mimicking the very sharp reduction in food intake after surgery.
^ Jump up to: a b c Barnard ND, Cohen J, Jenkins DJ, et al. (2006). “A low-fat vegan diet improves glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in a randomized clinical trial in individuals with type 2 diabetes”. Diabetes Care. 29 (8): 1777–83. doi:10.2337/dc06-0606. PMID 16873779. Lay summary – News-Medical.Net (2006-08-08).
There is no known preventive measure for type 1 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes – which accounts for 85–90% of all cases – can often be prevented or delayed by maintaining a normal body weight, engaging in physical activity, and consuming a healthy diet. Higher levels of physical activity (more than 90 minutes per day) reduce the risk of diabetes by 28%. Dietary changes known to be effective in helping to prevent diabetes include maintaining a diet rich in whole grains and fiber, and choosing good fats, such as the polyunsaturated fats found in nuts, vegetable oils, and fish. Limiting sugary beverages and eating less red meat and other sources of saturated fat can also help prevent diabetes. Tobacco smoking is also associated with an increased risk of diabetes and its complications, so smoking cessation can be an important preventive measure as well.
Dietary factors also influence the risk of developing type 2 DM. Consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks in excess is associated with an increased risk. The type of fats in the diet is also important, with saturated fat and trans fats increasing the risk and polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fat decreasing the risk. Eating lots of white rice also may increase the risk of diabetes. A lack of physical activity is believed to cause 7% of cases.
Exenatide (Byetta) originated from an interesting source: the saliva of the Gila monster! Scientists observed that this small lizard could go a long time without eating. They discovered a substance in its saliva that slowed stomach emptying, thus making the lizard feel fuller for a longer time. This substance resembled a gut hormone naturally found in humans known as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The enzyme DPP-IV breaks down GLP-If one could make a substance like GLP-1 but that resisted breakdown, it would have potential benefit. Such efforts developed exenatide.
Type 1 DM results from the pancreas’s failure to produce enough insulin. This form was previously referred to as “insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus” (IDDM) or “juvenile diabetes”. The cause is unknown.
Excessive urination (polyuria): Another way the body tries to rid the body of the extra sugar in the blood is to excrete it in the urine. This can also lead to dehydration because a large amount of water is necessary to excrete the sugar.
Per the World Health Organization people with fasting glucose levels from 6.1 to 6.9 mmol/l (110 to 125 mg/dl) are considered to have impaired fasting glucose. people with plasma glucose at or above 7.8 mmol/l (140 mg/dl), but not over 11.1 mmol/l (200 mg/dl), two hours after a 75 g oral glucose load are considered to have impaired glucose tolerance. Of these two prediabetic states, the latter in particular is a major risk factor for progression to full-blown diabetes mellitus, as well as cardiovascular disease. The American Diabetes Association since 2003 uses a slightly different range for impaired fasting glucose of 5.6 to 6.9 mmol/l (100 to 125 mg/dl).
Exercise naturally supports your metabolism by burning fat and building lean muscle. To prevent and reverse diabetes, make exercise a part of your daily routine. This doesn’t necessary mean that you have to spend time at the gym. Simple forms of physical activity, like getting outside and walking for 20 to 30 minute every day, can be extremely beneficial, especially after meals. Practicing yoga or stretching at home or in a studio is another great option.
People develop diabetes when they stop releasing or responding to normal amounts of insulin in response to consuming foods with carbohydrates, sugar and fats. In healthy people, the pancreas releases insulin to help with the use and storage of sugar (glucose) and fats, but people with diabetes either produce too little insulin or fail to respond appropriately to normal amounts of insulin — ultimately causing high blood sugar.
This seems hard to do, but really it’s not if you know one secret: Replace snacking with something far more satisfying — fat. That’s right, the government is wrong to recommend a low fat diet. Fat is what makes you feel full until your next meal. Take away the fat, take away the full. Don’t go to an extreme, but do lean strongly toward a high-fat low-carb diet.
Iryna Kolesova/shutterstockWhen you have diabetes, your body becomes less efficient at breaking food down into sugar, so you have more sugar sitting in your bloodstream, says Dobbins. “Your body gets rid of it by flushing it out in the urine.” So going to the bathroom a lot could be one of the diabetes symptoms you’re missing. Most patients aren’t necessarily aware of how often they use the bathroom, says Dr. Cypess. “When we ask about it, we often hear, ‘Oh yeah, I guess I’m going more often than I used to,'” he says. But one red flag is whether the need to urinate keeps you up at night. Once or twice might be normal, but if it’s affecting your ability to sleep, that could be a diabetes symptom to pay attention to. Make sure you know these diabetes myths that could sabotage your health.
High blood sugar can also cause numbness, burning, or tingling in the hands, legs, and feet. This is caused by diabetic neuropathy, a complication of diabetes that often occurs after many years of high blood sugar levels.
Work with your doctor. Some risks related to diabetes, such as heart disease, are still higher than normal even when your blood sugar is controlled. So work closely with your doctor, and go to all of your appointments.
We give you special kudos for managing your condition, as it is not always easy. If you’ve had diabetes for a long time, it’s normal to burn out sometimes. You may get tired of your day to day tasks, such as counting carbohydrates or measuring your blood sugar. Lean on a loved one or a friend for support, or consider talking to someone else who has diabetes who can provide, perhaps, an even more understanding ear or ideas that can help you.
Acanthosis nigricans: A dark, “velvety” patch of skin can appear in the armpits, groin, and neck folds, and over the joints of the fingers and toes. It is an indicator of high insulin and is seen more commonly in African Americans.
The most agreed-upon recommendation is for the diet to be low in sugar and refined carbohydrates, while relatively high in dietary fiber, especially soluble fiber. People with diabetes also encouraged to eat small frequent meals a day. Likewise, people with diabetes may be encouraged to reduce their intake of carbohydrates that have a high glycemic index (GI), although this is also controversial. (In cases of hypoglycemia, they are advised to have food or drink that can raise blood glucose quickly, such as a sugary sports drink, followed by a long-acting carbohydrate (such as rye bread) to prevent risk of further hypoglycemia.) Others question the usefulness of the glycemic index and recommend high-GI foods like potatoes and rice. It has been claimed that oleic acid has a slight advantage over linoleic acid in reducing plasma glucose.
When you’re craving something sweet, make tracks to the melon aisle, where you’ll find many varieties including watermelon, cantaloupe, muskmelon, honeydew, casaba, crenshaw, Persian, and pepino. While all of these are bursting with healthy nutrients, the most common types contain some unique properties:
If the patient were to gain weight back or scale back on their physical activity program, high blood glucose would return. If they were to overeat at a meal, their blood glucose probably would continue to go higher than someone without diabetes. Also, the decreased insulin production and/or increased insulin resistance that led to the initial diabetes diagnosis will gradually intensify over the years and during periods of stress. In time, the patient who could maintain normal blood glucose with diet and exercise alone may discover that he or she needs to add oral diabetes medications — or perhaps even insulin injections — to keep blood glucose in a healthy range.
If you decide to try an alternative therapy, don’t stop taking the medications that your doctor has prescribed. Be sure to discuss the use of any of these therapies with your doctor to make sure that they won’t cause adverse reactions or interact with your medications.