American Diabetes Association (ADA). Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes – 2018. Diabetes Care 2018 Jan; 41(Supplement 1): S1-S2. Accessed Jan. 21, 2018 at https://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/diacare/suppl/2017/12/08/41.Supplement_1.DC1/DC_41_S1_Combined.pdf
A diabetic diet doesn’t have to be complicated and you don’t have to give up all your favorite foods. The first step to making smarter choices is to separate the myths from the facts about eating to prevent or control diabetes.
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During an oral glucose tolerance test your doctor will first ask you to perform a fasting blood sugar test. Then, they will give you a sugary liquid to drink and will measure your blood sugar levels periodically over the next two hours. You will be diagnosed with diabetes if there is more than 200 mg/dL.
Diabetes can often be detected by carrying out a urine test, which finds out whether excess glucose is present. This is backed up by a blood test, which measures blood glucose levels and can confirm if the cause of your symptoms is diabetes.
While poor vision is hardly uncommon—more than 60 percent of the American population wears glasses or contacts, after all—sudden changes in your vision, especially blurriness, need to be addressed by your doctor. Blurry vision is often a symptom of diabetes, as high blood sugar levels can cause swelling in the lenses of your eye, distorting your sight in the process. Fortunately, for many people, the effect is temporary and goes away when their blood sugar is being managed.
Diabetes focus: In a review of 17 studies, Mediterranean-style diets were found to significantly improve fasting blood sugar and A1C levels in people with type 2 diabetes. Although many books on the Mediterranean diet are available, The Oldways 4-Week Mediterranean Diet Menu Plan (Oldways, 2012) is a quick read and outlines four weeks of Mediterranean diet meal plans with simple, flavorful recipes. The recipes’ nutritional values are listed in the back of the book, which you can use for calorie and carb counts.
^ Jump up to: a b c d Emadian, Amir; Andrews, Rob C.; England, Clare Y.; Wallace, Victoria; Thompson, Janice L. (2015-11-28). “The effect of macronutrients on glycaemic control: a systematic review of dietary randomised controlled trials in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes in which there was no difference in weight loss between treatment groups”. The British Journal of Nutrition. 114 (10): 1656–66. doi:10.1017/S0007114515003475. ISSN 1475-2662. PMC 4657029 . PMID 26411958.
Controlling your blood sugar level is essential to keeping your baby healthy and avoiding complications during delivery. In addition to maintaining a healthy diet and exercising, your treatment plan may include monitoring your blood sugar and, in some cases, using insulin or oral medications.
If you have type 1 diabetes, your pancreas no longer makes the insulin your body needs to use blood sugar for energy. You will need insulin in the form of injections or through use of a continuous pump. Learning to give injections to yourself or to your infant or child may at first seem the most daunting part of managing diabetes, but it is much easier that you think.
Dinner should include a lean protein, nonstarchy vegetables, and either starchy vegetables or whole grains. Depending on your calorie and carb budgets, you can also enjoy low-fat dairy or fruit as part of your meal. Talk to a dietitian or diabetes educator about customizing meal plans for delicious and healthy dinners.
Increased ketones in your urine (diabetic ketoacidosis). If your cells are starved for energy, your body may begin to break down fat. This produces toxic acids known as ketones. Watch for loss of appetite, weakness, vomiting, fever, stomach pain and a sweet, fruity breath. You can check your urine for excess ketones with an over-the-counter ketones test kit. If you have excess ketones in your urine, consult your doctor right away or seek emergency care. This condition is more common in people with type 1 diabetes.
Jump up ^ Mudaliar, S (2009). “Serum glucose control in diabetic patients with cardiovascular disease: should we be less aggressive?”. Current atherosclerosis reports. 11 (5): 384–90. doi:10.1007/s11883-009-0058-y. PMID 19664383.
Diabetes can also result from other hormonal disturbances, such as excessive growth hormone production (acromegaly) and Cushing’s syndrome. In acromegaly, a pituitary gland tumor at the base of the brain causes excessive production of growth hormone, leading to hyperglycemia. In Cushing’s syndrome, the adrenal glands produce an excess of cortisol, which promotes blood sugar elevation.
Monitor your fasting insulin level. This is every bit as important as your fasting blood sugar. You’ll want your fasting insulin level to be between 2 and 4. The higher your level, the worse your insulin sensitivity is.
When people discover you have diabetes, they may proudly offer you sugar-free versions of favorite treats or beverages. Sugar-free claims may mean that foods are calorie-free, or they could contain carbs and calories, like cookies and candy. Read the ingredients and the Nutrition Facts label to know for sure.