“diabetes mellitus and stroke”

Meanwhile, saturated fats and trans fats can harm your heart and overall health, according to the American Heart Association. To spot trans fats, look for the term “hydrogenated” on labels of processed foods, such as packaged snacks, baked goods, and crackers. “I always tell my clients to double-check the ingredient list to make sure they don’t see any partially hydrogenated oil in their food products,” Massey says.

Like pramlintide, exenatide is injected but only twice each day (usually before breakfast and dinner meals). Exenatide is available by a disposable pen form and in two doses. The initial goal is to start a lower dose for a month or so, then move up to the higher dose if needed and as tolerated. Similar to pramlintide, the main side effect of exenatide is nausea, most likely due to its effects on stomach emptying. Exenatide is temperature sensitive, so the initial recommendation was to store pens at 36 F to 46 F (2 C to 8 C). This recommendation recently changed. Unopened pens should be refrigerated; once opened, exenatide pens can be left at room temperature. The risk of hypoglycemia remains a possibility with exenatide, especially when used in combination with sulfonylurea. Your health-care professional may choose to decrease the dose of other medications while initially evaluating your response to exenatide.

Symptoms of type 1 diabetes can start quickly, in a matter of weeks. Symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop slowly—over the course of several years—and can be so mild that you might not even notice them. Many people with type 2 diabetes have no symptoms. Some people do not find out they have the disease until they have diabetes-related health problems, such as blurred vision or heart trouble.

Endocrinology is the specialty of medicine that deals with hormone disturbances, and both endocrinologists and pediatric endocrinologists manage patients with diabetes. People with diabetes may also be treated by family medicine or internal medicine specialists. When complications arise, people with diabetes may be treated by other specialists, including neurologists, gastroenterologists, ophthalmologists, surgeons, cardiologists, or others.

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder that occurs when your blood sugar (glucose), is too high (hyperglycemia). Glucose is what the body uses for energy, and the pancreas produces a hormone called insulin that helps convert the glucose from the food you eat into energy. When the body either does not produce enough insulin, does not produce any at all, or your body becomes resistant to the insulin, the glucose does not reach your cells to be used for energy. This results in the health condition termed diabetes.

Your health care team also can help you decide the best time of day for you to do physical activity based on your daily schedule, meal plan, and diabetes medicines. If you take insulin, you need to balance the activity that you do with your insulin doses and meals so you don’t get low blood glucose.

Jump up ^ Sarwar N, Gao P, Seshasai SR, Gobin R, Kaptoge S, Di Angelantonio E, Ingelsson E, Lawlor DA, Selvin E, Stampfer M, Stehouwer CD, Lewington S, Pennells L, Thompson A, Sattar N, White IR, Ray KK, Danesh J (2010). “Diabetes mellitus, fasting blood glucose concentration, and risk of vascular disease: A collaborative meta-analysis of 102 prospective studies”. The Lancet. 375 (9733): 2215–22. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60484-9. PMC 2904878 . PMID 20609967.

Especially avoid gluten-containing grains and white wheat flour products such as bread, bagels, pretzels, cereals and crackers.  All grains break down into sugars and have the potential to severely spike blood glucose. The gluten in these foods causes the gut to become inflamed and can have an effect on hormones that regulate blood glucose.

Managing your diabetes is a full time commitment. The goal of diabetic therapy is to control blood glucose levels and prevent the complications of diabetes. Information about exercise, diet, and medication will help you manage your diabetes better. Blood glucose reagent strips, blood glucose meters, urine glucose tests, tests for urinary ketones, continuous glucose sensors, and Hemoglobin A1C testing information will enable you to mange your diabetes at home successfully.

Uncontrolled exposure to stress is the major cause, so you have to know how to determine your body’s stress tolerance levels and how to eliminate the excess. Stress is the cause of at least 25 ailments including high BP.

eggegg/shutterstockDon’t be alarmed: This is not diabetic retinopathy, where the blood vessels in the back of the eye are getting destroyed, says Dr. Cypess. In the early stages of diabetes, the eye lens is not focusing well because glucose builds up in the eye, which temporarily changes its shape. “You’re not going blind from diabetes,” Dr. Cypess says he assures patients. “In about six to eight weeks after your blood sugars are stabilized, you’re not going to feel it anymore; the eye will adjust.” Here are more surprising facts you never knew about diabetes.

Because physical activity lowers your blood glucose, you should protect yourself against low blood glucose levels, also called hypoglycemia. You are most likely to have hypoglycemia if you take insulin or certain other diabetes medicines, such as a sulfonylurea. Hypoglycemia also can occur after a long intense workout or if you have skipped a meal before being active. Hypoglycemia can happen during or up to 24 hours after physical activity.

It seems clear that the successful ones eat very low amounts of refined sugars and simple starches. They may have small amounts of truly whole grains (not stuff that is marketed as “whole grain” but is actually highly processed). They eat small amounts of fruits and starchy vegetables. (Diabetic low-carb guru Dr. Richard Bernstein says he hasn’t eaten a piece of fruit in decades.)

Your doctor may want to perform periodic blood tests to determine your blood sugar levels. This will help determine how well you’re managing the disease. If you take medication, these tests will help gauge how well it’s working.

Given the above research findings, it is recommended that drivers with type 1 diabetes with a history of driving mishaps should never drive when their BG is less than 70 mg/dl (3.9 mmol/l). Instead, these drivers are advised to treat hypoglycemia and delay driving until their BG is above 90 mg/dl (5 mmol/l).[61] Such drivers should also learn as much as possible about what causes their hypoglycemia, and use this information to avoid future hypoglycemia while driving.

“So, if this man’s meal plan developed with a dietitian states that he can eat 60 grams of carbohydrate at a meal, he can decide how he ‘spends’  those 60 grams. One time he may have 2/3 cup of rice and one cup of peas. Another time he may decide, for his carb choices, to eat a small baked potato, a cup of milk and have the brownie for dessert.”

If your healthcare team tells you that you need to take oral diabetes medications or insulin injections to manage your blood glucose, it’s important that you follow their instructions. Keeping your blood glucose in a healthy range is key to preventing long-term complications, such as eye disease, kidney disease, heart attacks, and other problems that poorly controlled blood glucose can cause a period of years.

If, on the other hand, you are already starting to develop complications or your medication regimen has changed because your blood sugars are getting higher, remember that diabetes is a progressive disease—and sometimes these things just happen without any influence from your own actions. As you age, beta cells in the pancreas get tired and stop working. If you’ve had diabetes for 20 years and now need to start insulin, for example, it doesn’t mean you’ve failed. It just means that your body needs some help. Make sure you continue to receive education and that you continue to have someone to lean on when you need it, and keep the lines of communication open with your doctor. It truly can make a difference.

In this health topic, we discuss hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS), an extremely serious complication that can lead to diabetic coma and even death in type 2 diabetes. This serious condition occurs when the blood glucose gets too high and the body becomes severely dehydrated. To prevent HHNS and diabetic coma in type 2 diabetes, check your blood glucose regularly as recommended by your health care provider; when you are sick, check your blood glucose more frequently, drink plenty of fluids, and watch for signs of dehydration.

People (usually with type 1 DM) may also experience episodes of diabetic ketoacidosis, a metabolic disturbance characterized by nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain, the smell of acetone on the breath, deep breathing known as Kussmaul breathing, and in severe cases a decreased level of consciousness.[26]

Want to make your pizza dough, but don’t have time for it to rise? This is a quick and easy recipe for you! Just combine whole wheat flour, yeast, wheat germ, salt and honey, bake, and then top with your favorite toppings.

As self-management of diabetes typically involves lifestyle modifications, adherence may pose a significant self-management burden on many individuals.[78] For example, individuals with diabetes may find themselves faced with the need to self-monitor their blood glucose levels, adhere to healthier diets and maintain exercise regimens regularly in order to maintain metabolic control and reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular problems. Barriers to adherence have been associated with key psychological mechanisms: knowledge of self-management, beliefs about the efficacy of treatment and self-efficacy/perceived control.[78] Such mechanisms are inter-related, as one’s thoughts (e.g. one’s perception of diabetes, or one’s appraisal of how helpful self-management is) is likely to relate to one’s emotions (e.g. motivation to change), which in turn, affects one’s self-efficacy (one’s confidence in their ability to engage in a behaviour to achieve a desired outcome).[79]

hypoglycemia (dangerously low levels of blood sugar). To avoid hypoglycemia, the dose of mealtime insulin should be cut in half when starting pramlintide. Brief placebo-controlled clinical studies (up to six months) reported weight loss over six pounds associated with pramlintide therapy.

Blueberries are part of the family of fruits containing flavonoids, known for their many health benefits, including heart health. In addition, blueberries’ high fiber content may reduce the risk of diabetes and cognitive decline, and help keep blood sugar more level, says Joanne M. Gallivan, MS, RD, director of the National Diabetes Education Program at the National Institutes of Health. “Recent studies have also shown that berries have an anticancer effect by inhibiting tumor growth and decreasing inflammation,” Gallivan says.

When the infection develops in the vaginal area, symptoms include itching, soreness, vaginal discharge, and painful sex. Oral yeast infections often cause a cottage-cheese coating on the tongue and inside of the mouth. High levels of glucose in the blood triggers the growth of fungus.

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If I eat sweets it is a bite or two..unless I give myself a splurge moment. Can do without spiking. I agree that vegs and protein, plus sprouted grain slice of bread once a day works well. I eat quite a lot of fruit by itself, seems to aid the whole process.

Jump up ^ Frachetti, KJ; Goldfine, AB (April 2009). “Bariatric surgery for diabetes management”. Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity. 16 (2): 119–24. doi:10.1097/MED.0b013e32832912e7. PMID 19276974.

That queasy feeling in your stomach could be something less benevolent than butterflies. Both high and low blood sugar can cause nausea, and this unsettled feeling is often one of the first signs diabetics notice before a diagnosis.

Your doctor may use one or more tests to screen for diabetes. The glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test is most common. This is a blood test that indicates your average blood sugar level during the previous two to three months. It measures the amount of blood sugar attached to hemoglobin. The higher your blood sugar levels are, the more hemoglobin is attached to sugar.

Jump up ^ Alexander, G Caleb; Sehgal NL; Moloney RM; Stafford RS (27 October 2008). “National trends in treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, 1994–2007”. Archives of Internal Medicine. 168 (19): 2088–94. doi:10.1001/archinte.168.19.2088. PMC 2868588 . PMID 18955637.

Pay attention if you find yourself feeling drowsy or lethargic; pain or numbness in your extremities; vision changes; fruity or sweet-smelling breath which is one of the symptoms of high ketones; and experiencing nausea or vomiting—as these are additional signs that something is not right. If there’s any question, see your doctor immediately to ensure that your blood sugar levels are safe and rule out diabetes.

If you have type 2 diabetes, your body becomes resistant to insulin. Your body is no longer using the hormone efficiently. This forces your pancreas to work harder to make more insulin. Over time, this can damage cells in your pancreas. Eventually, your pancreas may not be able to produce any insulin.

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