Keep records of blood sugar levels as often as recommended by the health-care professional and the diabetes care team, including the times the levels were checked, when and how much insulin or medication was taken, when and what was eaten, and when and for how long the patient exercised.
Urinary tract infections (UTIs): A UTI occurs when bacteria enter anywhere in the urinary tract, including the urethra, ureters, kidneys, and bladder. They are much more common in women than in men in general, and they occur more often in people with diabetes because the sugar in the urine presents a breeding ground for bacterial growth.
Diabetes is a chronic condition associated with abnormally high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Insulin produced by the pancreas lowers blood glucose. Absence or insufficient production of insulin, or an inability of the body to properly use insulin causes diabetes.
Chicken salad: Combine 2 c mixed dark greens, 2 stalks chopped celery, and ¼ c sliced green or red grapes. Top with 2 oz cooked chicken breast, and drizzle with 2 Tbsp light honey mustard dressing (such as Newman’s Own). Serve with 1 slice reduced-calorie 100% whole grain toast, spread with 1 tsp canola oil soft margarine.
If added therapy for type 2 diabetes is needed after lifestyle management and metformin use, liraglutide (Victoza) and empagliflozin (Jardiance) have proven to reduce major cardiovascular events (stroke, heart attack) and cardiovascular mortality (death). In the 2018 ADA guidelines, these drugs are recommended as first-choice agents in patients with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular heart disease (ASCVD), after considering patient and drug-specific factors. Canagliflozin (Invokana) can be selected based on a reduction in major cardiovascular events. These three agents may also have a benefit in the progression of diabetic kidney disease. ASCVD is defined as coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, or peripheral artery disease.
If you have diabetes or prediabetes, your doctor will likely recommend that you see a dietitian to help you develop a healthy eating plan. The plan helps you control your blood sugar (glucose), manage your weight and control risk factors for heart disease, such as high blood pressure and high blood fats.
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Ketone testing is another test that is used in type 1 diabetes. Ketones build up in the blood when there is not enough insulin in people with type 1 diabetes, eventually “spilling over” into the urine. The ketone test is done on a urine sample. High levels of blood ketones may result in a serious condition called ketoacidosis. Ketone testing is usually done at the following times:
While it may sound intimidating for someone who’s just been diagnosed, the simplest thing you can do right away is to stop skipping meals. Going for long periods without eating isn’t the best idea for anyone. It can slow your metabolism over time, make it easier to overindulge later and mess with your energy levels. But for anyone with diabetes or prediabetes, it’s even more significant. Meal skipping can lead to dips and spikes in blood sugar, so eating once every three to four hours is a good goal to set.
^ Jump up to: a b Sugimoto, K; Baba, M; Suda, T; Yasujima, M; Yagihashi, S (2003). “Peripheral neuropathy and microangiopathy in rats with insulinoma: association with chronic hyperinsulinemia”. Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews. 19 (5): 392–400. doi:10.1002/dmrr.395. PMID 12951647.
Not everyone with type 2 diabetes needs to use insulin. If you do, it’s because your pancreas isn’t making enough insulin on its own. It’s crucial that you take insulin as directed. There are other prescription medications that may help as well.