“diabetes mellitus questions”

Jump up ^ Kenny C (April 2014). “When hypoglycemia is not obvious: diagnosing and treating under-recognized and undisclosed hypoglycemia”. Primary care diabetes. 8 (1): 3–11. doi:10.1016/j.pcd.2013.09.002. PMID 24100231.

SI: That was the turning point for me. I started reading research and that’s what kind of led me to meet my scientific co-founders. The bottom line, what these guys had shown is that there is a way to nutritionally reverse type 2 diabetes without starving you to death. They had published all these papers. I was like this is nuts. This is 30 years-old science.

^ Jump up to: a b c d Emadian, Amir; Andrews, Rob C.; England, Clare Y.; Wallace, Victoria; Thompson, Janice L. (2015-11-28). “The effect of macronutrients on glycaemic control: a systematic review of dietary randomised controlled trials in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes in which there was no difference in weight loss between treatment groups”. The British Journal of Nutrition. 114 (10): 1656–66. doi:10.1017/S0007114515003475. ISSN 1475-2662. PMC 4657029 . PMID 26411958.

Different groups of oral medications may be combined, or insulin and oral medications may be used together. Blood thinners such as aspirin or clopidogrel may be started in patients at higher risk for cardiovascular events such as stroke or heart attack. Other medications such as blood pressure control or high cholesterol treatments may be needed, as well. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) will be started in diabetic patients with protein in their urine to help protect the kidneys and other organs.

What you eat: “People choose from about 150 different Nutrisystem ready-to-go and frozen foods that are healthier versions of favorite foods, supply about 65 percent of the day’s calories, and cost about $11 a day,” Nichols says. You round out your diet with small amounts of dairy products and nuts, plus fresh fruits and vegetables, and follow a structured plan of five or six small meals and snacks daily.

Diabetic comas Hypoglycemia Ketoacidosis Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state Diabetic foot ulcer Neuropathic arthropathy Organs in diabetes Blood vessels Muscle Kidney Nerves Retina Heart Diabetic skin disease Diabetic dermopathy Diabetic bulla Diabetic cheiroarthropathy Neuropathic ulcer Hyperglycemia Hypoglycemia

While there are guidelines to use A1c as a screening tool, it gives a physician a good idea that someone is diabetic if the value is elevated. Right now, it is used as a standard tool to determine blood sugar control in patients known to have diabetes.

If you have type 1 diabetes, avoid vigorous physical activity when you have ketones in your blood or urine. Ketones are chemicals your body might make when your blood glucose level is too high, a condition called hyperglycemia, and your insulin level is too low. If you are physically active when you have ketones in your blood or urine, your blood glucose level may go even higher. Ask your health care team what level of ketones are dangerous for you and how to test for them. Ketones are uncommon in people with type 2 diabetes.

Polyuria is defined as an increase in the frequency of urination. When you have abnormally high levels of sugar in your blood, your kidneys draw in water from your tissues to dilute that sugar, so that your body can get rid of it through the urine. The cells are also pumping water into the bloodstream to help flush out sugar, and the kidneys are unable to reabsorb this fluid during filtering, which results in excess urination.

Healthy eating. Contrary to popular perception, there’s no specific diabetes diet. You’ll need to center your diet on more fruits, vegetables and whole grains — foods that are high in nutrition and fiber and low in fat and calories — and cut down on animal products, refined carbohydrates and sweets. In fact, it’s the best eating plan for the entire family. Sugary foods are OK once in a while, as long as they’re counted as part of your meal plan.

[3] U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans summary. https://health.gov/paguidelines/guidelines/summary.aspx. Updated June 21, 2016. Accessed June 21, 2016.

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The most common symptoms are related to hyperglycemia (high blood sugar levels), especially the classic symptoms of diabetes: frequent urination and thirst. Fatigue related to dehydration and eating problems can also be related to high blood sugars.5,6

The amount of food you eat is closely related to blood sugar control. If you eat more food than is recommended on your meal plan, your blood sugar goes up. Although foods containing carbohydrates (carbs) have the most impact on blood sugars, the calories from all foods will affect blood sugar.

^ Jump up to: a b Safren, S.A., Gonzalez, J.S., Wexler, D.J., Psaros, C., Delahanty, L.M., Blashill, A.J., Margolina, A.I., & Cagliero, E. (2013). “A randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioral therapy for adherence and depression (CBT-AD) in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes”. Diabetes Care. 37 (3): 625–33. doi:10.2337/dc13-0816.

Exercise reduces chronic disease and can help reverse diabetes naturally. Studies show that exercise improves blood glucose control and can prevent or delay type 2 diabetes, while also positively affecting your blood pressure, heart health, cholesterol levels and quality of life. (17)

For example, a 6′ 2″ tall man with diabetes who weighs 180 pounds and wants to maintain his current weight might be told he could eat 350 grams of carbohydrate spread out over the day. His goal would be to spread those grams out over the course of the day so that he doesn’t send his blood glucose too high at any one time. If he is taking insulin or oral diabetes medication, he might also have to manage when he eats his carbohydrate in such a way that there is enough sugar from his meals in his bloodstream when his medication is working its hardest.

Add some healthy fat to your dessert. Fat slows down the digestive process, meaning blood sugar levels don’t spike as quickly. That doesn’t mean you should reach for the donuts, though. Think healthy fats, such as peanut butter, ricotta cheese, yogurt, or nuts.

Oftentimes, your symptoms may seem harmless. The most common symptoms of diabetes, such as persistent thirst and fatigue, are often vague. When experienced on their own, symptoms such as these may not be anything to worry about.

HHNS is caused by sky-high blood sugar that turns blood thick and syrupy. It tends to be more common in older people with type 2 diabetes, and it’s often preceded by an illness or infection. HHNS usually develops over days or weeks. Call your doctor or seek immediate medical care if you have signs or symptoms of this condition.

Popeye was right — spinach is good for you. You probably already know that it’s loaded with vitamins and minerals. A 1-cup serving of raw spinach or 1/2 cup cooked provides over 50 percent of the daily value for folate and vitamin C. At the same time, a serving of this nonstarchy vegetable is super low in calories (7) and carbohydrate (1 gram). A ½-cup cooked serving contains just 22 calories and 4 grams of carb.

A biological approach to the artificial pancreas is to implant bioengineered tissue containing islet cells, which would secrete the amounts of insulin, amylin and glucagon needed in response to sensed glucose.

About 84 million adults in the US (more than 1 out of 3) have prediabetes, and about 90% do not know they have it until a routine blood test is ordered, or symptoms of type 2 diabetes develop. For example, excessive thirst, frequent urination, and unexplained weight loss. If you have prediabetes also it puts you at risk for heart attack, stroke, and type 2 diabetes.

We understand that losing weight and managing your diabetes has both a physical and mental component. That’s why we offer unlimited access to Certified Diabetes Educators, dietitians and weight loss counselors, who are standing by to answer any question you may have, so you can feel confident that you’re tackling weight loss the safe way.

The ASPCA Virtual Pet Behaviorist specializes in the resolution and management of pet behavior problems only. Please do not submit questions about medical problems here. Only licensed veterinarians can diagnose medical conditions. If you think that your pet is sick, injured or experiencing any kind of physical distress, please contact his veterinarian immediately. A delay in seeking proper veterinary care may worsen your pet’s condition and put his life at risk. If you are concerned about the cost of veterinary care, please read our resources on finding financial help.© 2009-2014 ASPCA. All Rights Reserved.

High blood sugar (hyperglycemia). Your blood sugar level can rise for many reasons, including eating too much, being sick or not taking enough glucose-lowering medication. Check your blood sugar level as directed by your doctor, and watch for signs and symptoms of high blood sugar — frequent urination, increased thirst, dry mouth, blurred vision, fatigue and nausea. If you have hyperglycemia, you’ll need to adjust your meal plan, medications or both.

Jump up ^ Horio H, Ohtsuru M (2001). “Maitake (Grifola frondosa) improve glucose tolerance of experimental diabetic rats”. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology. 47 (1): 57–63. doi:10.3177/jnsv.47.57. PMID 11349892.

Ketone testing is another test that is used in type 1 diabetes. Ketones build up in the blood when there is not enough insulin in people with type 1 diabetes, eventually “spilling over” into the urine. The ketone test is done on a urine sample. High levels of blood ketones may result in a serious condition called ketoacidosis. Ketone testing is usually done at the following times:

People who have type 1 diabetes may also have nausea, vomiting, or stomach pains. Type 1 diabetes symptoms can develop in just a few weeks or months and can be severe. Type 1 diabetes usually starts when you’re a child, teen, or young adult but can happen at any age.

You can also vary the amounts you eat and see how that affects your blood glucose. You might have enough insulin for a small amount but not a larger one. It should only take a month or two of serious monitoring to learn what foods spike your glucose levels and how much, and which ones don’t.

Take care of your teeth. Diabetes may leave you prone to more-serious gum infections. Brush and floss your teeth at least twice a day. And if you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes, schedule regular dental exams. Consult your dentist right away if your gums bleed or look red or swollen.

More modern history of the diabetic diet may begin with Frederick Madison Allen and Elliott Joslin, who, in the early 20th century, before insulin was discovered, recommended that people with diabetes eat only a low-calorie and nearly zero-carbohydrate diet to prevent ketoacidosis from killing them. While this approach could extend life by a limited period, patients developed a variety of other medical problems.[7]

Anyone with a body mass index higher than 25, regardless of age, who has additional risk factors, such as high blood pressure, a sedentary lifestyle, a history of polycystic ovary syndrome, having delivered a baby who weighed more than 9 pounds, a history of diabetes in pregnancy, high cholesterol levels, a history of heart disease, and having a close relative with diabetes.

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