These little berries pack a big nutritional punch. A 1-cup serving provides over half of the day’s vitamin C, a powerful antioxidant beneficial for bone and skin health, as well as cancer and heart disease prevention. Even more amazing is their fiber content: a whopping 7 grams of dietary fiber, in part due to the edible seeds.
The risk of developing type 2 diabetes is also greater as we get older. Experts are not completely sure why, but say that as we age we tend to put on weight and become less physically active. Those with a close relative who had/had type 2 diabetes, people of Middle Eastern, African, or South Asian descent also have a higher risk of developing the disease.
Richard K. Bernstein is critical of the standard American Diabetes Association diet plan. His plan includes very limited carbohydrate intake (30 grams per day) along with frequent blood glucose monitoring, regular strenuous muscle-building exercise and, for people using insulin, frequent small insulin injections if needed. His treatment target is “near normal blood sugars” all the time.
The soluble fiber in oatmeal might also help blunt the rise in blood glucose by delaying stomach emptying and providing a physical barrier to digestive enzymes and absorptive surfaces, according to the professional publication Today’s Dietitian.
Diabetes can occur at any time. There are certain risk factors for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. This is not an exhaustive list, and even adults can end up with type 1 diabetes, though it is infrequent.
The hemoglobin A1c test is the best measurement of blood sugar control in people known to have diabetes. The normal value is under 6%. Hemoglobin A1c levels of 7% or less indicate good glucose control. A result of 8% or higher indicates that blood sugar levels are too high, too often.
Insulin is not available in oral tablet form, although a new inhaled insulin product called Afrezza was approved in 2014. Afrezza is an ultra rapid-acting inhaled insulin that is administered with meals to improve blood sugar control in adult diabetics. Insulin is usually is delivered by injections that are required one to four times per day. Some people use an insulin pump, which is worn at all times and delivers a steady flow of insulin throughout the day.
Gestational diabetes often develops later in pregnancy. According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, pregnant women diagnosed with gestational diabetes early in pregnancy may have had diabetes prior to pregnancy.
And remember not to let others scare you into thinking the worst. Getting educated will help you to understand that a diabetes diagnosis, while serious, is not the end of the world. For some people, lifestyle modifications such as weight loss, healthy eating, and exercise can actually get blood sugars below the diabetes threshold. You can control your diabetes and not let it control you.
For most patients, metformin (Glucophage, Glucophage XR) will be initial therapy, but insulin may be required short-term for patients who present with excessively high blood sugar. Metformin is a preferred initial drug therapy because it rarely leads to weight gain or hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), is available generically and therefore is cost- effective, and has been shown to have a positive effect on LDL cholesterol.
Numerous substances have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity in some studies, while other studies fail to find any benefit for blood sugar control or in lowering A1C levels. Because of the conflicting findings, there aren’t any alternative therapies that are currently recommended to help with blood sugar management.
Monogenic diabetes is caused by mutations, or changes, in a single gene. These changes are usually passed through families, but sometimes the gene mutation happens on its own. Most of these gene mutations cause diabetes by making the pancreas less able to make insulin. The most common types of monogenic diabetes are neonatal diabetes and maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY). Neonatal diabetes occurs in the first 6 months life. Doctors usually diagnose MODY during adolescence or early adulthood, but sometimes the disease is not diagnosed until later in life.
Type 1 diabetes mellitus is characterized by loss of the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreatic islets, leading to insulin deficiency. This type can be further classified as immune-mediated or idiopathic. The majority of type 1 diabetes is of the immune-mediated nature, in which a T cell-mediated autoimmune attack leads to the loss of beta cells and thus insulin. It causes approximately 10% of diabetes mellitus cases in North America and Europe. Most affected people are otherwise healthy and of a healthy weight when onset occurs. Sensitivity and responsiveness to insulin are usually normal, especially in the early stages. Type 1 diabetes can affect children or adults, but was traditionally termed “juvenile diabetes” because a majority of these diabetes cases were in children.
SI: Yeah, we build everything in house… After the doctor makes all the clinical decisions about the patient, and so forth, what he’s looking at is basically a data pool of all the patients every day, several times a day. When he sees the data, he see’s that drug for that patient needs to go off.
Albina Glisic/ShutterstockHigher levels of sugar in urine and the vagina can become a breeding ground for the bacteria and yeast that cause these infections. Recurrent infections are particularly worrisome. “Usually when you keep getting infections, doctors will check for diabetes if you don’t already have it,” says Cypress. “Even women who go to the emergency room for urinary tract infections are often checked.” Don’t miss these other silent diabetes complications you need to know about.
Alternative medicine should never be used alone to treat diabetes. But there are things you can do — in addition to medication, proper diet, and exercise — that may help control your blood sugar and prevent complications of diabetes.
This log should also include the doses and times for insulin or oral medications, when and what the patient ate, when and for how long they exercised, and any significant events of the day such as high or low blood sugar levels and how they treated the problem. Many mobile applications (“apps”) now exist to help with such logging.
Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). If your blood sugar level drops below your target range, it’s known as low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). Your blood sugar level can drop for many reasons, including skipping a meal, inadvertently taking more medication than usual or getting more physical activity than normal. Low blood sugar is most likely if you take glucose-lowering medications that promote the secretion of insulin or if you’re taking insulin.
Please Note: This meal plan is controlled for calories, carbohydrates, fiber, saturated fat and sodium. If you are concerned about any nutrient in particular, speak with your health care provider and a registered dietitian about altering this plan to best suit your individual health needs.
For example: Each gram of carbohydrate provides 4 calories. A person with diabetes on a 1,600 calorie diet should get 50% of these calories from carbohydrates. This would be a total of 800 calories of carbohydrates (at 4 calories per gram) spread out over the day. At 15 grams per exchange, this would be about 13 exchanges of carbohydrates per day.
Pramlintide, an amylin analog, is an agent that delays gastric emptying, blunts pancreatic secretion of glucagon, and enhances satiety. It is FDA-approved for use in adults with type 1 diabetes. It has been shown to induce weight loss and lower insulin doses. Concurrent reduction of prandial insulin dosing is required to reduce the risk of severe hypoglycemia.
For this reason, acarbose is administered using a low initial dose, and then increased over weeks depending on how well the patient tolerates the medication. Most gastrointestinal symptoms tend to subside over the course of a few weeks, although some patients report persistent problems.