“diabetes mellitus types”

An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) entails drinking a beverage containing glucose and then having your blood glucose levels checked every 30 to 60 minutes for up to 3 hours. If the glucose level is 200 mg/dL or higher at 2 hours, then you might have diabetes.

Unlike type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes may respond to treatment with exercise, diet, and/or oral medications. There are several oral hypoglycemic agents that lower blood glucose in type 2 diabetes. Selection of an oral diabetes treatment may follow this general guideline:

In addition the A1C test, your doctor will take blood and urine samples periodically to check your cholesterol levels, thyroid function, liver function and kidney function. The doctor will also assess your blood pressure. Regular eye and foot exams also are important.

Diabetic patients must get professional dental cleanings every six months. In cases when dental surgery is needed, it is necessary to take some special precautions such as adjusting diabetes medication or taking antibiotics to prevent infection. Looking for early signs of gum disease (redness, swelling, bleeding gums) and informing the dentist about them is also helpful in preventing further complications. Quitting smoking is recommended to avoid serious diabetes complications and oral diseases.

Some people who have type 2 diabetes can achieve their target blood sugar levels with diet and exercise alone, but many also need diabetes medications or insulin therapy. The decision about which medications are best depends on many factors, including your blood sugar level and any other health problems you have. Your doctor might even combine drugs from different classes to help you control your blood sugar in several different ways.

Many manufacturers offer pen delivery systems. Such systems resemble the ink cartridge in a fountain pen. A small, pen-sized device holds an insulin cartridge (usually containing 300 units). Cartridges are available for the most widely used insulin formulations. The amount of insulin to be injected is dialed in, by turning the bottom of the pen until the required number of units is seen in the dose-viewing window. The tip of the pen consists of a needle that is replaced with each injection. A release mechanism allows the needle to penetrate just under the skin and deliver the required amount of insulin. The cartridges and needles are disposed of when finished and new ones simply are inserted. In some systems, the entire pen is disposed. These insulin delivery devices are less cumbersome than traditional methods.

Identify yourself. Wear a tag or bracelet that says you have diabetes. Keep a glucagon kit nearby in case of a low blood sugar emergency — and make sure your friends and loved ones know how to use it.

The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that everyone, including people with diabetes, eat 2-1/2 cups of vegetables per day. If your blood sugar rises after you eat vegetables, check your portion sizes:

While many people are asymptomatic, Silver says there are plenty of undiagnosed diabetes patients who do have symptoms, but just aren’t aware that diabetes is the cause. “People who have family members with diabetes are more in tune with the symptoms, and so they tend to get diagnosed sooner,” she says.

We’ll explain more about some warning signs of hypoglycemia in this health topic, including nausea, a jittery or nervous feeling, a rapid heartbeat, mood changes, blurred vision, and difficulty walking. Severe hypoglycemia can lead to loss of consciousness, seizures, and coma and may be fatal.

Hydrogenated oils: Remove hydrogenated, rancid oils from your diet, including vegetable oil, soybean oil, cottonseed oil and canola oil. Because these oils are processed, treated at very high temperatures, and combined with bleaching agents and artificial dyes, consuming them has been linked to many health concerns, including diabetes.

It almost seems like a catch twenty-two to have to consume more water and increase your urination when you are already having a constant bathroom issue, but once you have increased your water consumption for a day or two, the body gets used to it and doesn’t require running the restroom as often.

Equipping patients with an algorithm for self-titration of insulin doses based on self-monitoring of blood glucose improves glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes initiating insulin (42). Comprehensive education regarding self-monitoring of blood glucose, diet, and the avoidance of and appropriate treatment of hypoglycemia are critically important in any patient using insulin.

140 to 199 mg/dL Prediabetes (also called Impaired Fasting Glucose) Blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes. This condition puts you at increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and stroke.

Medical expenses for people with diabetes are over two times higher than those for people who do not have diabetes. Remember, these numbers reflect only the population in the United States. Globally, the statistics are staggering.

From an economic perspective, the total annual cost of diabetes in 2012 was estimated to be 245 billion dollars in the United States. This included 116 billion in direct medical costs (healthcare costs) for people with diabetes and another 69 billion in other costs due to disability, premature death, or work loss.

One condition that is unique to women and linked to the body not using insulin effectively (insulin resistance) is polycystic ovarian syndrome. In this condition, the ovaries become enlarged and are unable to release eggs properly.

When fasting blood glucose stays above 100mg/dl, but in the range of 100-126mg/dl, this is known as impaired fasting glucose (IFG). While patients with IFG or prediabetes do not have the diagnosis of diabetes, this condition carries with it its own risks and concerns, and is addressed elsewhere.

^ Jump up to: a b Petzold A, Solimena M, Knoch KP (2015). “Mechanisms of Beta Cell Dysfunction Associated With Viral Infection”. Curr Diab Rep (Review). 15 (10): 73. doi:10.1007/s11892-015-0654-x. PMC 4539350 . PMID 26280364. So far, none of the hypotheses accounting for virus-induced beta cell autoimmunity has been supported by stringent evidence in humans, and the involvement of several mechanisms rather than just one is also plausible.

Informed by scientific evidence, this group of RDs provides integrative and functional medical nutrition therapy (IFMNT) based on two principles: Each client has a unique genetic make up, and each client functions in an environment with internal and external factors that influence interactions between the mind, body, and spirit.

Ideally, insulin should be administered in a manner that mimics the natural pattern of insulin secretion by a healthy pancreas. However, the complex pattern of natural insulin secretion is difficult to duplicate. Still, adequate blood glucose control can be achieved with careful attention to diet, regular exercise, home blood glucose monitoring, and multiple insulin injections throughout the day. Taking care of your diabetes with careful home care and monitoring assists in controlling blood sugar levels and effective diabetes treatment.

To determine a person’s blood sugar levels, blood tests may be taken after not eating for 8 hours, 2 hours after a meal, or at both times. Some people may also take a glucose tolerance test, which requires the patient to drink a sugary liquid and get blood tests afterward.

It is important to realize that sugar is not the only carbohydrate that you have to “control.” The body will convert all carbohydrates to glucose, so eating extra servings of rice, pasta, bread, fruit, or other carbohydrate foods will make the blood sugar rise.

Scientists from the National Institutes of Health and Harvard University found that women whose diets before becoming pregnant were high in animal fat and cholesterol had a higher risk for gestational diabetes, compared to their counterparts whose diets were low in cholesterol and animal fats. (Link to article)

“Stay on the perimeter of the store, and stock up on seasonal produce that’s on sale,” McManus said. “Not everything has to be fresh. Plain, frozen vegetables and fruits can be easy and convenient substitutes.”

Triglycerides are a common form of fat that we digest. Triglycerides are the main ingredient in animal fats and vegetable oils. Elevated levels of triglycerides are a risk factor for heart disease, heart attack, stroke, fatty liver disease, and pancreatitis. Elevated levels of triglycerides are also associated with diseases like diabetes, kidney disease, and medications (for example, diuretics, birth control pills, and beta blockers). Dietary changes, and medication if necessary can help lower triglyceride blood levels.

Manufacturers are required to provide the total amount of sugar in a serving but do not have to spell out how much of this sugar has been added and how much is naturally in the food. The trick is deciphering which ingredients are added sugars. Aside from the obvious ones—sugar, honey, molasses—added sugar can appear as agave nectar, cane crystals, corn sweetener, crystalline fructose, dextrose, evaporated cane juice, fructose, high-fructose corn syrup, invert sugar, lactose, maltose, malt syrup, and more.

In 2006 the FDA approved the first drug in this class called sitagliptin (Januvia). Sitagliptin can be used in combination with certain other medications, but its dose must be adjusted in patients with poor kidney function.

Jump up ^ Unless otherwise specified, reference is: Table 20-5 in Mitchell, Richard Sheppard; Kumar, Vinay; Abbas, Abul K.; Fausto, Nelson. Robbins Basic Pathology (8th ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders. ISBN 1-4160-2973-7.

Although similar to troglitazone, extensive studies have failed to associate pioglitazone and rosiglitazone with any liver problems. Both pioglitazone and rosiglitazone act by increasing the sensitivity (responsiveness) of cells to insulin. They improve the sensitivity of muscle and fat cells to insulin. These drugs effectively lower blood sugars in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Insulin is what regulates glucose levels in the blood, and it’s normally tightly controlled by the pancreas, which responds to how much glucose is detected in the blood at any one time. This system fails when someone has diabetes, causing various symptoms to emerge that can affect nearly every system in the body. With diabetes, signs of blood sugar fluctuations often include changes in your appetite, weight, energy, sleep, digestion and more.

Comments

  1. Agnes Perry

    Random blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken at a random time. Regardless of when you last ate, a random blood sugar level of 200 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) — 11.1 millimoles per liter (mmol/L) — or higher suggests diabetes.

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