“diabetes mellitus with diabetic polyneuropathy”

Some people may be able to control their type 2 diabetes symptoms by losing weight, following a healthy diet, doing plenty of exercise, and monitoring their blood glucose levels. However, type 2 diabetes is typically a progressive disease – it gradually gets worse – and the patient will probably end up have to take insulin, usually in tablet form.

PCOS is a metabolic syndrome caused due to hormonal imbalance in the female body. It affects fertility in women and causes irregular periods. Other symptoms include facial hair, loss of hair, acne, weight gain, skin darkening (especially around the neck, elbows and armpit) and depression. Females with PCOS are at a great risk of getting diabetes. PCOS is thus an important warning sign of an impending diabetic condition.

SI: Yeah, that’s precisely the reason why we have our own doctors. That’s precisely the reason why we have a full-stack health care company…It’s absolutely critical that we get this data very, very rapidly so we can start adjusting them off of meds. If we don’t get people off the meds quickly and accurately, it’s actually dangerous for the patients. When you’re diabetic your blood sugar runs high. You take drugs, you get it down. If we can get your blood sugar down naturally and then you take drugs on top of that you’re going to be in the ER.

Work with your doctor. Some risks related to diabetes, such as heart disease, are still higher than normal even when your blood sugar is controlled. So work closely with your doctor, and go to all of your appointments.

You’re likely to start by seeing your primary care doctor if you’re having diabetes symptoms. If your child is having diabetes symptoms, you might see your child’s pediatrician. If blood sugar levels are extremely high, you’ll likely be sent to the emergency room.

Type 2 diabetes is typically diagnosed during adulthood, usually after age 45 years. It was once called adult-onset diabetes mellitus, or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. These names are no longer used because type 2 diabetes does occur in young people, and some people with type 2 diabetes require insulin therapy.

Insulin is not available in oral tablet form, although a new inhaled insulin product called Afrezza was approved in 2014. Afrezza is an ultra rapid-acting inhaled that is administered with meals to improve blood sugar control in adult diabetics. Insulin is usually is delivered by injections that are required one to four times per day. Some people use an insulin pump, which is worn at all times and delivers a steady flow of insulin throughout the day.

Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. This blood test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. It measures the percentage of blood sugar attached to hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells. The higher your blood sugar levels, the more hemoglobin you’ll have with sugar attached. An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests indicates that you have diabetes. An A1C between 5.7 and 6.4 percent indicates prediabetes. Below 5.7 is considered normal.

^ Jump up to: a b Safren, S.A., Gonzalez, J.S., Wexler, D.J., Psaros, C., Delahanty, L.M., Blashill, A.J., Margolina, A.I., & Cagliero, E. (2013). “A randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioral therapy for adherence and depression (CBT-AD) in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes”. Diabetes Care. 37 (3): 625–33. doi:10.2337/dc13-0816.

To prevent further diabetic complications as well as serious oral problems, diabetic persons must keep their blood sugar levels under control and have a proper oral hygiene. A study in the Journal of Periodontology found that poorly controlled type 2 diabetic patients are more likely to develop periodontal disease than well-controlled diabetics are.[71] At the same time, diabetic patients are recommended to have regular checkups with a dental care provider at least once in three to four months. Diabetics who receive good dental care and have good insulin control typically have a better chance at avoiding gum disease to help prevent tooth loss.[74]

The earliest surviving work with a detailed reference to diabetes is that of Aretaeus of Cappadocia (2nd or early 3rd century CE). He described the symptoms and the course of the disease, which he attributed to the moisture and coldness, reflecting the beliefs of the “Pneumatic School”. He hypothesized a correlation of diabetes with other diseases, and he discussed differential diagnosis from the snakebite which also provokes excessive thirst. His work remained unknown in the West until 1552, when the first Latin edition was published in Venice.[101]

Depending on your treatment plan, you may need to check and record your blood sugar level every now and then or, if you’re on insulin, multiple times a day. Ask your doctor how often he or she wants you to check your blood sugar. Careful monitoring is the only way to make sure that your blood sugar level remains within your target range.

Many pregnant women develop insulin resistance and high blood sugar levels during pregnancy. This is known as gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes must be monitored by a woman’s obstetrician throughout her pregnancy, as it can lead to complications for mother and baby. Gestational diabetes usually goes away after the woman gives birth.

Type 2 diabetes is the leading cause of diabetes-related complications, such as blindness, non-traumatic amputations and chronic kidney failure. In fact, diabetes is the leading cause of kidney disease, and it’s called diabetic kidney disease. It also raises the risk for heart disease, stroke and reproductive/fertility problems.

Jump up ^ Mathers CD, Loncar D (November 2006). “Projections of global mortality and burden of disease from 2002 to 2030”. PLoS Med. 3 (11): e442. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030442. PMC 1664601 . PMID 17132052.

Oftentimes, your symptoms may seem harmless. The most common symptoms of diabetes, such as persistent thirst and fatigue, are often vague. When experienced on their own, symptoms such as these may not be anything to worry about.

Colberg, S. R., Sigal, R. J., Fernhall, B., Regensteiner, J. G., Blissmer, B. J., Rubin, R. R., … Braun, B. (2010, December). Exercise and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 33(12), 147-167. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2992225/

The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that everyone, including people with diabetes, eat 2-1/2 cups of vegetables per day. If your blood sugar rises after you eat vegetables, check your portion sizes:

Once you’ve had your insulin injection, you can’t stop the medicine from working. If you take an insulin shot but forget to eat, your blood sugar levels can get too low. So try to avoid skipping meals or snacks. If your parents remind you to eat when you take your insulin, it’s probably because they worry about you, not because they’re trying to nag you!

Since carbohydrate is the macronutrient that raises blood glucose levels most significantly, the greatest debate is how low in carbohydrates the diet should be. This is because although lowering carbohydrate intake will help reduce blood glucose levels, a low-carbohydrate diet conflicts with the traditional establishment view that carbohydrates should be the main source of calories. Recommendations of the fraction of total calories to be obtained from carbohydrate are generally in the range of 20% to 45%,[1] but recommendations can vary as widely as from 16% to 75%.[2]

Comments

  1. Agnes Perry

    Glucagon is a hormone that causes the release of glucose from the liver (for example, it promotes gluconeogenesis). Glucagon can be lifesaving and every patient with diabetes who has a history of hypoglycemia (particularly those on insulin) should have a glucagon kit. Families and friends of those with diabetes need to be taught how to administer glucagon, since obviously the patients will not be able to do it themselves in an emergency situation. Another lifesaving device that should be mentioned is very simple; a medic-alert bracelet should be worn by all patients with diabetes.

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