Diabetes is a leading cause of death in all industrialized nations. Overall, the risk of premature death of people with diabetes is twice that of people who do not have diabetes. Prognosis depends on the type of diabetes, degree of blood sugar control, and development of complications.
Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors are a class of oral antidiabetic drugs used in type 2 diabetes. SGLT-2 inhibitors work by lowering the renal (kidney) glucose threshold, resulting in an increased amount of glucose being excreted in the urine. These agents are not used first line for type 2 diabetes treatment, but can be combined with other medications.
Monogenic Forms of Diabetes: Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus and Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young (National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases)
Some people have their insulin administered by continuous infusion pumps to provide adequate blood-glucose control. Supplemental mealtime insulin is programmed into the pump by the individual as recommended by his or her health-care professionals.
A diabetic diet doesn’t have to be complicated and you don’t have to give up all your favorite foods. The first step to making smarter choices is to separate the myths from the facts about eating to prevent or control diabetes.
Again, the choice of drug is an individual one. In the case of sulphonylureas, the choice depends on daily dosing and the level of side effects. These drugs are associated with weight gain and hypoglycemia.2
Statins, which are medicines to reduce LDL (“bad”) cholesterol levels, can slightly increase the chance that you’ll develop diabetes. However, statins help protect you from heart disease and stroke. For this reason, the strong benefits of taking statins outweigh the small chance that you could develop diabetes.
When in doubt, consult the glycemic load (a scale that can help you measure how much a serving of a certain food is likely to spike your blood sugar) to pick a diabetes-friendly fruit. Your healthcare team can also help you safely incorporate fruit in your diabetes diet.
Diabetes focus: In a review of 17 studies, Mediterranean-style diets were found to significantly improve fasting blood sugar and A1C levels in people with type 2 diabetes. Although many books on the Mediterranean diet are available, The Oldways 4-Week Mediterranean Diet Menu Plan (Oldways, 2012) is a quick read and outlines four weeks of Mediterranean diet meal plans with simple, flavorful recipes. The recipes’ nutritional values are listed in the back of the book, which you can use for calorie and carb counts.
Oral medications are used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, and may be the only treatment needed. Insulin is not always required in patients with type 2 diabetes, as it is with type 1 diabetes. These medications are used together with diet and exercise to type 2 diabetes.
^ Jump up to: a b “National Diabetes Clearinghouse (NDIC): National Diabetes Statistics 2011”. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Archived from the original on 17 April 2014. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
Although there isn’t a single diabetic diet that fits every person’s needs, there are general guidelines people with prediabetes or diabetes should follow to live well and thrive. Eating healthfully with diabetes is essential to helping control blood glucose (blood sugar), blood lipids (cholesterol), and blood pressure — whether you take blood glucose-lowering medications or not. Today, following a diabetic diet means integrating smart food choices into your eating plan, which can help you manage your weight and ABCs (A1C; blood pressure; cholesterol) levels for life.
In 2010, diabetes-related emergency room (ER) visit rates in the United States were higher among people from the lowest income communities (526 per 10,000 population) than from the highest income communities (236 per 10,000 population). Approximately 9.4% of diabetes-related ER visits were for the uninsured.