When lifestyle changes alone can’t control blood sugar, your doctor may prescribe medicine. Metformin is generally the first drug used to treat type 2 diabetes. It works by lowering your liver’s blood glucose production and improving insulin sensitivity in your muscles.
Tuna salad: Mix 3 oz water-packed tuna with 2 stalks chopped celery, 4 chopped green olives, and 1 tsp regular (or1 T reduced-fat mayonnaise). Add 1 Tbsp seasoned rice vinegar, if desired. Scoop tuna onto 2 c mixed dark greens, and top with 1 Tbsp chopped almonds. Serve with 1 oz 100% whole grain crackers.
Implementing integrative and functional medical nutrition therapy, I helped the patient understand that she could reverse the trajectory she was on by making lifestyle changes—and that’s what she did. We engaged in shared decision making in our ongoing nutrition consultations. Over the course of one year, her physiology and health status changed for the better. Her A1c dropped from 7.2% to 5.6%, and she no longer required medications. She continues to adhere to her new lifestyle program and is confident she’ll remain free of a diabetes diagnosis.
Make physical activity part of your daily routine. Regular exercise can help prevent prediabetes and type 2 diabetes, and it can help those who already have diabetes to maintain better blood sugar control. Thirty minutes of moderate exercise — such as brisk walking — most days of the week is recommended. A combination of exercises — aerobic exercises, such as walking or dancing on most days, combined with resistance training, such as weightlifting or yoga twice a week — often helps control blood sugar more effectively than does either type of exercise alone.
Rating your plate is a meal planning system based upon portion size. Imaginary lines are used to divide a meal plate into two halves, and one half is further divided into fourths. One-fourth of the plate should contain grains/starches, one-fourth should contain protein, and the remaining half should contain non-starchy vegetables.
Treatment for type 1 diabetes involves insulin injections or the use of an insulin pump, frequent blood sugar checks, and carbohydrate counting. Treatment of type 2 diabetes primarily involves monitoring of your blood sugar, along with diabetes medications, insulin or both.
 National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements. Dietary supplements: what you need to know. ods.od.nih.gov/HealthInformation/DS_WhatYouNeedToKnow.aspx. Reviewed June 17, 2011. Accessed June 21, 2016.
Table 8.2 lists drugs commonly in the U.S. Cost-effectiveness models of the newer agents based on clinical utility and glycemic effect have been reported (38). Table 8.3 provides cost information for currently approved noninsulin therapies. Of note, prices listed are average wholesale prices (AWP) (39) and National Average Drug Acquisition Costs (NADAC) (40) and do not account for discounts, rebates, or other price adjustments often involved in prescription sales that affect the actual cost incurred by the patient. While there are alternative means to estimate medication prices, AWP and NADAC were utilized to provide two separate measures to allow for a comparison of drug prices with the primary goal of highlighting the importance of cost considerations when prescribing antihyperglycemic treatments. The ongoing Glycemia Reduction Approaches in Diabetes: A Comparative Effectiveness Study (GRADE) will compare four drug classes (sulfonylurea, DPP-4 inhibitor, GLP-1 receptor agonist, and basal insulin) when added to metformin therapy over 4 years on glycemic control and other medical, psychosocial, and health economic outcomes (41).
Eating right and exercising more often is good for everyone. But it’s especially important for people with type 2 diabetes because they often have more body fat than they should. When people put on too much body fat, it’s because they’re eating more calories than they use each day. The body stores that extra energy in fat cells. Over time, gaining pounds of extra fat can lead to obesity and diseases related to obesity, like type 2 diabetes.
Jump up ^ Lo HC, Hsu TH, Chen CY (2008). “Submerged culture mycelium and broth of Grifola frondosa improve glycemic responses in diabetic rats”. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine. 36 (2): 265–85. doi:10.1142/S0192415X0800576X. PMID 18457360.
Jump up ^ Asuncion, MM; Shaheen, M; Ganesan, K; Velasques, J; Teklehaimanot, S; Pan, D; Norris, K (2007). “Increase in hypoglycemic admissions: California hospital discharge data”. Ethnicity & disease. 17 (3): 536–40. PMID 17985510.
Each day, you’ll add in fresh grocery foods for the best nutritional balance. And throughout each week, you’ll have the flexibility to practice healthy eating on your own. You’ll pick when to enjoy a flex breakfast, lunch, dinner and snack each week. Dine out at a restaurant for lunch one day, or try one of our easy recipes another day to practice cooking healthy on your own!
Jump up ^ Schwartz, SE; Levine, RA; Weinstock, RS; Petokas, S; Mills, CA; Thomas, FD (1988). “Sustained pectin ingestion: effect on gastric emptying and glucose tolerance in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients”. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 48 (6): 1413–17. doi:10.1093/ajcn/48.6.1413. PMID 2849298.
Generally, ankle swelling (edema) and puffiness due to the accumulation of fluid can be controlled by either reducing the drug dose or addition of a diuretic such as spironolactone (Aldactone); note that furosemide (Lasix) does not work as well. On occasion, patients may be symptomatic enough from fluid retention to warrant drug withdrawal. Some recent studies have suggested an association between untoward cardiac events and pioglitazone and rosiglitazone (for example, heart attacks), but this association is controversial. The controversy notwithstanding, it has been well established that pioglitazone and rosiglitazone should be avoided in patients with symptomatic heart failure or heart failure.
Exchange lists help in the planning of balanced meals by grouping together foods that have similar carbohydrate, protein, fat, and calorie content. The American Dietetic Association and the American Diabetes Association have published exchange lists to plan meals.
HHNS is caused by sky-high blood sugar that turns blood thick and syrupy. It tends to be more common in older people with type 2 diabetes, and it’s often preceded by an illness or infection. HHNS usually develops over days or weeks. Call your doctor or seek immediate medical care if you have signs or symptoms of this condition.
Type 1 diabetes, formerly called juvenile diabetes, is an autoimmune condition in which the body does not produce insulin because the body’s immune system attacks insulin-producing cells from the pancreas called beta cells.
In patients with type 2 diabetes and established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, after lifestyle management and metformin, the antihyperglycemic agent canagliflozin may be considered to reduce major adverse cardiovascular events, based on drug-specific and patient factors (Table 8.1). C*
Diabetes takes a toll on your entire body, but it can also increase your risk of dental disease and other symptoms that show up in your mouth. In fact, one in five cases of total tooth loss is linked to diabetes.
High levels of blood sugar often cause a condition called diabetic neuropathy. This is a condition in which nerves lose their ability to effectively transmit signals between the organs and brain. This can lead to partial or complete loss of sensation in parts of the body including hands, legs and feet. Vagina is an organ with a rich network of nerves. It is, thus, one of the most sensitive organs of the female body. Neuropathy may significantly affect sensation in the vagina, leading to a lower sexual drive in women.
Jump up ^ Chandalia, M; Garg, A; Lutjohann, D; Von Bergmann, K; Grundy, SM; Brinkley, LJ (2000). “Beneficial effects of high dietary fiber intake in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus”. The New England Journal of Medicine. 342 (19): 1392–98. doi:10.1056/NEJM200005113421903. PMID 10805824.
GLP-1 receptor agonists. These medications slow digestion and help lower blood sugar levels, though not as much as sulfonylureas. Their use is often associated with some weight loss. This class of medications isn’t recommended for use by itself.
In order to control their glucose levels, people with type 1 diabetes must inject insulin several times a day, as well as stay on a consistent diet and exercise regimen. For those with type 2 diabetes, treatment includes diet, exercise, and self-monitoring of blood glucose levels. Also, in some cases, oral drugs or insulin will be used as part of the treatment.
The way we use software and AI for the benefit of doctors is we basically give them superpowers. We can read all that data on a real-time basis every day of every second and then tell our patients, “Okay, Wilma she needs attention. Her, whatever medication she might be on, needs to be reduced.”